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CHAPTER V. ESSAY ORGANIZATION. Overview of Essay Organization. As you learned before, a paragraph is a group of sentences about one topic and has three main parts: the topic sentence the body (supporting sentences) the concluding sentence. Overview of Essay Organization.

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Chapter v



Overview of essay organization

Overview of Essay Organization

  • As you learned before, a paragraph is a group of sentences about one topic and has three main parts:

    • the topic sentence

    • the body (supporting sentences)

    • the concluding sentence

Overview of essay organization1

Overview of Essay Organization

  • Similarly, an essay is a group of paragraphs about one topic and also has three mainparts:

    • the introduction

    • the body

    • the conclusion

Chapter v

The diagram below shows that a paragraph and an essay have the same basic plan; an essay is just longer.

The introductory paragraph

The Introductory Paragraph

  • The introduction is the first paragraph of the essay. It introduces the topic of the essay and arouses the reader’s interest.

The introductory paragraph1

The Introductory Paragraph

  • In this lesson, you will learn to write a “funnel introduction.” A funnel introduction has two parts:

    • several general statements

    • a thesis statement

The introductory paragraph2

The Introductory Paragraph

The introductory paragraph3

The Introductory Paragraph

  • General statements give the reader background information about the topic of the essay. They should lead your reader gradually from a very general ide of your topic to a very specific ideas.

The introductory paragraph4

The Introductory Paragraph

  • The first general statement in a funnel introduction just introduces the topic. Like the lens of a camera moving in for a close up picture, each sentence that follows becomes more and more focused on a specific topic.

The introductory paragraph5

The Introductory Paragraph

  • There is no exact rule about the general statements you need; however, you should be interesting enough to hold the reader’s attention.

The introductory paragraph6

The Introductory Paragraph

  • It is permissible to sprinkle a few interesting details in the general statements in order to attract the reader’s interest. However, you should not give any details that belong in the body of the essay.

The introductory paragraph7

The Introductory Paragraph

  • The thesis statement introduces the main idea of the essay.

    • It states the specific topic of the essay.

    • It may list subtopics of the main topic.

    • It may also mention the method of organization.

    • It is the last sentence of the introuction.

The introductory paragraph8

The Introductory Paragraph

  • Now read the introductory paragraph on the next slide. Notice how the sentences gradually move from the general topic of technology to the specific topic of two areas that have been changed by personal computers.

  • This introductory paragraph resembles a funnel, wide at the top (beginning) and narrow at the bottom (end).

Chapter v

We live in the age of technology. Every day, new technology appears,

ranging from mini-CDs that contain entire encyclopedias of

information to giant space telescopes that can send photo-

graphs of distant stars back to Earth. Of all the new

technological wonders, personal computers have

probably had the greatest influence on the daily

lives of average people. Through computers, we

can now talk to people in any country, research

any topic, work, shop, bank, and entertain our-

selves. Personal computers have especially

revolutionized communication and

business practices in

the past twenty years.

The introductory paragraph9

The Introductory Paragraph

  • The first two sentences introduce the general topic of technology. The mini-CDs and giant telescopes are mentioned to attract the reader’s interest.

The introductory paragraph10

The Introductory Paragraph

  • The next two sentences narrow the general topic of technology to the specific topic of personal computers. The deatils keep the reader interested without revealing the essay contents.

The introductory paragraph11

The Introductory Paragraph

  • The final sentence is the thesis statement. It names the two subtopics or specific areas changed by personal computers: communication and business.

Body paragraphs

Body Paragraphs

  • The body of the essay is made up of one or more paragraphs. Each of these paragraphs has

    • a topic sentence

    • supporting sentences

    • (sometimes) a concluding sentence.

  • Each of the body paragraphs supports the thesis statment.

Body paragraphs1

Body Paragraphs

The concluding paragraph

The Concluding Paragraph

  • The concluding paragraph is the last paragraph of an essay. It has three purposes:

    • It signals the end of the essay.

    • It reminds the reader of your main points.

    • It leaves the reader with your final thoughts on the topic.

The concluding paragraph1

The Concluding Paragraph

  • Notice how the the writer these three purposes in the following concluding paragraph.

The concluding paragraph2

The Concluding Paragraph

  • The transition phrase In short signals the end of the essay.

  • It summerizes the qualities of Mr. Smith: he was well informed, enthusiastic, organized, and interesting.

  • It gives a final comment: Mr. Smith inspired students to love learning.

The concluding paragraph3

The Concluding Paragraph

  • The first part of the concluding paragraph summerizes the main points or repeats the thesis statement in different words. It may require on or more than one sentence.

The concluding paragraph4

The Concluding Paragraph

  • In the second part, you may add a final comment. This is the place to express your opinion, make a judgement, or give a recommendation. However, do not add any new ideas in the concluding paragraph. Just comment on what you have already discussed.

The essay body outlining

The Essay Body: Outlining

  • Beacuse an essay is longer and more complex than a paragraph, it is even more important to organize your thoughts and plan the body of your essay before you begin to write. The best way to do this is to make an outline.

The essay body outlining1

The Essay Body: Outlining

  • The number/letter system for a formal outline is illustrated in the model outline. Notice that subtopics that form the body of the essay are indented to the right. As you move to the right, the ideas become more ane more specific.

Chapter v

Modern Technology

  • Introduction

    Thesis statement: The most recent significant discoveries to benefit humankind in modern times are in the fields of television and computer technology.

  • Body

    A. A popular form of instant communication all over the world is television.

    1. Witnessing important events

    a. Destruction of Berlin Wall

    b. Launching of spacecraft

    2. Long-distance medicine by two-way video

    a. Patient and doctor conferences

    b. Special equipment to monitor patient

Chapter v

B. In the last few decades, computer technology has made tremendous progress in the world of communication to benefit humankind.

1. Long-distance communication

2. Information superhighway

3. Global computer networks

Electronic mail

C. Technology has contributed enormously to advances in computer medicine, which has benefited both doctors and patients.

1. Rural doctors and medical information

a. Less access in past

b. Immediate access today

2. Rural doctors and urban medical centers

Use of computer to prescribe treatment

3. X-ray pictures of body parts

a. Diagnoses of diseases and disorders

b. Necessary treatments

4. Computer-aided diagnosis

a. Example of woman with headaches

Chapter v

III. Conclusion

To conclude, scientific research and experiments have certainly opened the doors to faster, more easily accessible information worldwide on television and the computer. Many of these discoveries have changed our lives for the better and have made the peoples of the world closer.

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