Providing for generalization of behavior change
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Providing for Generalization of Behavior Change. “A behavioral change may be said to have generality if it proves durable over time , if it appears in a wide variety of possible environments , or if it spreads to a wide variety of related behaviors ” (p. 338).

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Providing for Generalization of Behavior Change

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Providing for generalization of behavior change

Providing for Generalization of Behavior Change

“A behavioral change may be said to have generality if it proves durable over time, if it appears in a wide variety of possible environments, or if it spreads to a wide variety of related behaviors” (p. 338)


Providing for generalization of behavior change

Many criticisms of applied behavior analysis have resulted from the short lived results of many behavior change projects” (p. 440)

Behavior change is often accomplished…

  • “only for as long as the contingencies were in effect, or

  • only in the presence of the initial trainer, or

  • only for very specific behaviors that were trained” (p. 338)


Providing for generalization of behavior change

Given one quarter, two dimes, two nickels, and four pennies and the verbal cue, “show me your bus fare,”

…student will hand teacher the coins equaling bus fare to travel from school to home 100% of the time.

Acquisition-level behavioral objectives focus on conditions under which the behavior is to be performed and the criteria defined for performance.


Providing for generalization of behavior change

Generalization-level behavioral objectives also focus on conditions under which the behavior is to be performed and the criteria defined for performance. However, the conditions should reflect the real-life environment.


Write a generalization level behavioral objective for the same student

Write a ‘generalization-level’ behavioral objective for the same student.

Given one quarter, two dimes, two nickels, and four pennies and the verbal cue, “show me your bus fare,”

…student will … ___________________________________________________

100% of the time.


Big idea generalization should be programmed rather than expected or lamented p 340

Big Idea“…generalization should be programmed rather than expected or lamented.” (p. 340)

“If generalization does not automatically result when behavior is changed, does that mean applied behavior analysis procedures are useless? If you have stuck with us this far, you know that we don’t think so. To most behavior analysts, the lack of automatic generalization indicates the need for developing a technology of generalization as efficient as the technology of behavior change.” (p. 340)


The iep

The IEP

  • It is important that the IEP for each student with a disability includes objectives for the levels of maintenance and generalization.


Providing for generalization of behavior change

Ok, ok.

What are the types

of generalization?

  • It is important that the IEP for each student with a disability includes objectives for the levels of maintenance and generalization.


I m glad you asked that question

2

I’m glad you asked thatquestion.

1

  • Three types of generalization

    • Stimulus Generalization

    • Maintenance

    • Response Generalization


Stimulus generalization aka transfer of training

Stimulus GeneralizationAKA Transfer of Training

  • “…occurs when responses that have been reinforced in the presence of a specific stimulusoccur in the presence of different but similar stimuli…

  • A group of stimuli that should occasion the same response may be considered members of a stimulus class. In general, the more similar the stimuli, the more likely stimulus generalization will occur.


E g knowing the concept hammer you can point to all varieties of hammer

(e.g., knowing the concept “hammer,” you can point to all varieties of hammer)

DRIVE HAMMERED – GET NAILED


Response maintenance aka resistance to extinction durability behavioral persistence

Response MaintenanceAKA Resistance to Extinction, Durability, Behavioral Persistence

  • “The ability to perform a response over time, even after systematic applied behavior procedures have been withdrawn.

  • Most experimental evidence indicates that extinction occurs unless specific measures are taken to prevent it.” (p. 444)


Providing for generalization of behavior change

e.g.,

  • An EDSE student knows that reacting to annoying behaviors may actually reinforce those behaviors.

  • Student indicates the same on a test.

  • During practicum the same student gives attention to annoying behaviors.

    • This is a non-example of maintenance.


Response generalization aka concomitant concurrent behavior change

Response GeneralizationAKA Concomitant/Concurrent Behavior Change

  • Refers to unplanned changes in similar behaviors when a target behavior is modified.

  • Sometimes changing one behavior will result in changes in other similar behaviors. Such similar behaviors are often referred to as a response class, and changes in untrained members of the response class, as response generalization.


Providing for generalization of behavior change

e.g.,

  • A person learns to copy and paste in Microsoft Word.

  • When confronted with making a Power Point presentation for class, the person applies the principle of cutting and pasting to getting pictures into their slides.

  • The same person applies the principle to including their behavior change project in their Live Text e-portfolio.

Strategies to promote generalization…


Train and hope

Train and Hope

  • “In spite of reported evidence that some behaviors are automatically generalized, it is important to remember that most are not”

    (p. 347)


Sequentially modify

Sequentially Modify

  • “...generalization is promoted by applying the same techniques that successfully changed behavior in one setting to all settings where the target behavior is desirable.” (p. 349)


Introduce to natural maintaining contingencies

Introduce to Natural Maintaining Contingencies

  • While not an automatic process, the teacher should be aware that when naturally maintaining contingencies are found, they should be used.

  • In other words the teacher should set a trap.


Introduce to natural maintaining contingencies1

Some behaviors do lend themselves to trapping. If behaviors can be generated that result in increased peer reinforcement, they are particularly likely to be maintained. (p.347)

“The Teacher who wants the natural environment to take over reinforcement should be aware that this is by no means an automatic process.” (p.348)

Introduce to Natural Maintaining Contingencies


Introduce to natural maintaining contingencies2

Introduce to Natural Maintaining Contingencies

  • Observe what seems to be reinforcing for the student;

  • Choose behaviors that are rewarded in other settings, by other persons;

  • Teach students to solicit attention (and reinforcement) for behaviors (e.g., “How am I doing?);

  • Teach students to recognize reinforcement when it is delivered. (p. 351)


Train sufficient exemplars using general case programming

Train Sufficient Exemplars…using general case programming

  • “...emphasizes using sufficient members of a class of stimuli to ensure that students will be able to perform the task on any member of the class of

  • stimuli” (p. 354)


Train sufficient exemplars in multiple settings

Train Sufficient Exemplars…in multiple settings

A lemon is a

citrus fruit.

A lemon is a

citrus fruit.

Homeroom

Health Class


Train loosely

“Concurrent training conditions (e.g., 2 skills instead of 1) tends to produce more generalization than serial training.

OYO - READ page 357.

“The use of naturalistic or loose training represents a departure from tradition in special education teaching. Its success suggests again the importance of teachers’ maintaining their skills and keeping up with current research.”

Train Loosely


Use indiscriminable stimuli

Use Indiscriminable Stimuli

  • Thin (e.g., by delaying, or making intermittent) the reinforcement schedule as much as possible and the behavior may not extinguish no matter the setting, person, or time.

  • OYO - Read “Ms. Bell’s Class Learns to Complete Assignments” on pages 359.


Program common stimuli

“This may be accomplished by either increasing the similarity of the training situation to the natural environment…

or by introducing elements of the training situation into the natural environment.” (p. 359)

Program Common Stimuli


Mediate generalization and train to generalize

“It is possible to increase the probability of generalization by reinforcing generalizationas a response class....In mediating generalization, students are taught to monitorand report on their own generalization of appropriate behavior” (p. 362)

Mediate Generalization and Train to Generalize


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