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Principles of Behavior Change. Presented by: The Center for Life Enrichment. Objectives. Definition and recognition of behavior 5 motivating aspects of behavior 5 characteristics of reinforcement 3 primary behavior reduction techniques

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Principles of behavior change

Principles of Behavior Change

Presented by:

The Center for Life Enrichment


Objectives
Objectives

  • Definition and recognition of behavior

  • 5 motivating aspects of behavior

  • 5 characteristics of reinforcement

  • 3 primary behavior reduction techniques

  • 6 characteristics of enhancing positive behavior by establishing behavioral momentum


What is behavior
What is Behavior?

  • Anything an organism or living being does

  • Must be observable and measureable

  • Includes: Actions, verbalizations, manifestations of emotions and thoughts


Other characteristics
Other Characteristics

  • Individualized – different people do different things

  • May be adaptive, inappropriate, disruptive and/or dangerous

  • May be socially acceptable or unacceptable

  • Must be operationally defined – Must have a reason


Functions of behavior
Functions of Behavior

  • Communication – some are intentional, others may be more subtle or subconscious

  • Gain positive reinforcers

    • Food, comfort, playing or doing something fun

  • Gain negative reinforcers

    • Pain, rejection, avoidance, undesired activities


Sources for determining functions of behavior
Sources for determining functions of Behavior

  • Baseline data

  • Parents, service providers, staff

  • Medical evaluations, psychiatric and psychological evaluations

  • Environment

  • Individual Plan

  • Daily schedule or routine


Motivation of behavior
Motivation of Behavior

  • Involuntary – reflex, neurological, medication side effects

  • Biological, psychiatric, medical condition

  • Learned/functional – Antecedents-Behavior-Consequences (ABC)

  • Environmental Triggers

  • Combinations of any or all of these can intensify behavioral responses


Behavior change cycle
Behavior Change Cycle

  • Antecedent – the lead up; What is happening before the incident?

  • Behavior – the meltdown; What happened? What did they do?

  • Consequence – the aftermath; What happened as a result?


Reinforcement
Reinforcement

  • Anything that increases the probability that a behavior will occur again


Factors to consider
Factors to Consider

  • Relative power – may be a power struggle

  • Person dependent – certain person could trigger behavior time and time again

  • Availability – opportunity presents itself

  • Situation dependent – certain situation could trigger behavior

  • Time dependent – certain time of day or month could trigger behavior

  • Equal to effort expected – efficiency and strength of reinforcer

  • Habituation and satiation – could be a habit or “need” of individual


Positive reinforcement
Positive Reinforcement

  • Definition – shortly after the occurrence of the target behavior something is delivered (praise, attention, item, etc) which increases the chance that the behavior will occur again

  • Most likely to result in long-term behavior change


Positive reinforcement1
Positive Reinforcement

  • Elements of Effective Praise

    • Be sincere

    • Label what was good

    • Deliver where others can hear

    • Smile and use positive body language

    • Variety in reinforcement

    • Individualize your responses to fit what that person likes


Negative reinforcement
Negative Reinforcement

  • Engaging in a target behavior results in escape or avoidance of an unwanted event (stimulation) that increases the chance that the target behavior will occur again

  • Contingent removal of an unwanted stimulus immediately following a behavioral response that increases the chance that the target behavior will occur again


Schedules of reinforcement

Continuous

Reinforcement follows each acceptable response

Ratio – 1:1

When should you use this?

Intermittent

Reinforcement follows some, but not all, acceptable responses

Ratio – varies

When should you use this?

Schedules of Reinforcement


Differential reinforcement procedures
Differential Reinforcement Procedures

  • Differential Reinforcement of Other Behaviors (DRO)

  • Differential Reinforcement of Adaptive Behaviors (DRA)

  • Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Behaviors (DRI)


Differential reinforcement of other behaviors dro
Differential Reinforcement of Other Behaviors (DRO)

  • Delivering reinforcement when the target behavior is not displayed for a specified period of time. Reinforcement is contingent upon the absence of the target behavior

  • Difficult to implement correctly

    • Ex: Johnny will not yell for 10 minutes. Upon completion, he is positively reinforced with a desired activity


Differential reinforcement of adaptive behavior dra
Differential Reinforcement of Adaptive Behavior (DRA)

  • Delivering reinforcement when a target, adaptive behavior is displayed during a specified period of time. Reinforcement is contingent upon the occurrence of the target behavior

    • Ex: Catch Johnny being good. When he has not had any incidents, yet completes the goal to not yell for 10 minutes. He is quiet for 10 minutes, then reinforced with praise and a desired activity


Differential reinforcement of incompatible behavior dri
Differential Reinforcement of Incompatible Behavior (DRI)

  • Delivering reinforcement for a response that is topographically incompatible with a behavior targeted for reduction

    • Ex: Johnny hits people with things. Engage him in a musical therapy activity in which it is perfectly ok for him to hit instruments together


Behavior reduction strategies
Behavior Reduction Strategies

  • Extinction

  • Redirection

  • Feedback


Extinction
Extinction

  • Ignoring a specific behavior

  • Ignore behavior, NOT THE PERSON

  • Extinction bursts

  • Dangers of inconsistency – no way for behavior to become extinct if all staff are not communicating and working as a TEAM


Redirection
Redirection

  • Engaging an individual in a preferred activity that requires that person’s full attention; physically and mentally

  • Always redirect a person to a preferred activity that is incompatible with challenging behavior

    • Example: engages person’s hands if person is hitting

  • Redirection may be done verbally as well as non-verbally


Feedback
Feedback

  • Reminders of positive outcomes if the individual engages in desired activity

  • Reminders of natural outcomes/consequences of challenging behavior

  • Reflection of feelings: “It makes me sad when you call me names.”

  • Reminders of skills or coping mechanisms that the individual possesses


Behavioral momentum

Set the stage for success

Control antecedents

Restructure the environment

Avoid problem situations

Allow escape from triggers

Set a positive atmosphere

Allow time for success

Use appropriate approach/communication skills

Shape pro-social behavior

Successive approximations

Start with reinforcing high probability behavior, then move to lower probability behavior

Re-frame the behavior to make it positive

Behavioral Momentum


Documentation data collection
Documentation/Data Collection

  • First step and key component to anything done in this field

  • If its not documented, … It didn’t happen

  • Keep detailed descriptions of all incidences, in chronological order

  • Turn into appropriate party within agency whenever necessary

  • Always be sure to follow all agency policies in dealing with any behavioral incident


Behavior plan process
Behavior Plan Process

  • Data Collection

  • Team meets to decide if plan is necessary

  • BMP referral sent in requesting a plan to be formulated

  • Behavioral Consultant meets with team and participant

  • Plan constructed

  • Plan must be approved by agency Standing Committee

  • Must be signed by licensed professional, Standing Committee representative and individual (informed consent)


What is your role
What is your role?

  • Model appropriate behavior

  • Provide accurate feedback and encouragement

  • Consistently implement formal behavior plans

  • Provide opportunities for practice and generalization skills

  • Provide environments, activities, and expectations that are reasonable, functional, challenging, interesting and flexible

  • Listen and be aware of all that is going on around you


Resources
Resources

Alberto, P. & Troutman, A. (2002). Applied Behavior Analysis for Teachers. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, Prentice Hall.

Catania, C. (1992). Learning. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Durand, V.M. (1991). Functional Communication Training. New York, NY: Guildford Press.

Feindler, E. And Ecton, R. (19880). Adolescent Anger Control; Cognitive Behavioral Techniques. Elmsford, New York: Pergamon Press, Inc.


Post test
Post Test

True or False

  • Staff should control as many aspects of consumers’ lives as possible, to prevent behavioral episodes

  • An antecedent occurs immediately before the behavior

  • A consequence is what happens immediately after the behavior

  • The function of the behavior refers to what the individual is trying to obtain by exhibiting the behavior

  • Staff are expected to model appropriate and acceptable behavior

  • An individual who behaves inappropriately, should receive harsh, realistic punishment for their actions, based on DDA regulations


Post test1
Post Test

Multiple Choice

  • Reinforcement is:

  • A stimulus or event which happens before a behavior

  • A stimulus or event which happens after a behavior

  • A stimulus or event that is the event

  • Common functions of behavior are:

  • To communicate

  • To gain control

  • To gain sensory stimulation

  • All of the above

  • What must happen before a behavior plan can be implemented:

  • Randy must look at it and approve it

  • Participant’s dog must look at it and approve it

  • Staff must look at it and approve it

  • Standing committee must look at it and approve it


Post test2
Post Test

  • List 4 examples of potential positive reinforcers

  • List 4 examples of potential negative reinforcers


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