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Ⓒ Richard Mayberry. The Fire of Life. Respiration. Respiration burns glucose to release Energy. Respiration has three Stages. Glycolysis. Kreb’s Cycle. Electron Transport. Glycolysis. Breakdown of Glucose. Glycolysis. ADP. ATP. ‘C 6 ’. C 6 ~P. C 6 H 12 O 6. GLUCOSE.

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Ⓒ Richard Mayberry

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Richard mayberry

Ⓒ Richard Mayberry

The Fire of

Life

Respiration


Richard mayberry

Respiration

burns glucose

to release

Energy


Richard mayberry

Respiration

has three

Stages

Glycolysis

Kreb’s Cycle

Electron Transport


Richard mayberry

Glycolysis

Breakdown of

Glucose


Richard mayberry

Glycolysis

ADP

ATP

‘C6’

C6~P

C6H12O6

GLUCOSE

ATP gives a phosphate to the glucose.


Richard mayberry

Glycolysis

ADP

ADP

ATP

ATP

‘C6’

C6~P

P~C6~P

C6H12O6

GLUCOSE

A second ATP gives another phosphate to the glucose.


Richard mayberry

C3~P

C3~P

PGAL

PGAL

Glycolysis

ADP

ADP

ATP

ATP

‘C6’

C6~P

P~C6~P

C6H12O6

GLUCOSE

The 6 carbon sugar splits into 2 PGAL’s.


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NADH

NADH

NAD

NAD

C3~P

PGA

C3~P

C3~P

ADP

ADP

ATP

ATP

PGAL

PGAL

ADP+P

ATP

C3~P

PGA

ADP+P

ATP

Glycolysis

‘C6’

C6~P

P~C6~P

C6H12O6

GLUCOSE

NAD takes a hydrogen from each PGAL and releases enough energy for 2 ATP’s.


Richard mayberry

ATP

ATP

ADP

ADP

C3

C3~P

C3~P

Pyruvic Acid

ADP

ADP

ATP

ATP

PGAL

PGAL

C3

Pyruvic Acid

Glycolysis

NADH

NAD

C3~P

PGA

ADP+P

ATP

‘C6’

C6~P

P~C6~P

C6H12O6

NADH

GLUCOSE

NAD

C3~P

PGA

ADP+P

ATP

ADP removes the phosphate from each PGA to produce Pyruvic Acids.


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Under normal

conditions,

Pyruvic Acid

is the

end-product

of Glycolysis


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Glycolysis

occurs in the

Cytoplasm

Kreb's Cycle

reactions occur

in the

Mitochondrion


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O

C2

Acetyl

O

C3

C2

Acetyl

Pyruvic Acid

CO2

Mitochondrial

Matrix

Cytoplasm

C3

Pyruvic Acid

Oxygen takes away carbon dioxide as the molecules enter the mitochondrion.

CO2


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Kreb's

Citric Acid

Cycle


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CoA

NAD

NADH

C2

Cytoplasm

Mitochondrial

Matrix

C2-CoA

CoA

C2

Kreb’s

Cycle

C4

Acid

Acetyl

CoA ‘escorts’ each acetyl into the Kreb’s Cycle.

Entering

the

Cycle

C2

Acetyl


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Mitochondrial

Matrix

NADH

CoA

C2

NAD

CO2

NAD

C2CoA

O

NADH

C4

Acid

NAD

NADH

NAD

O

NADH

FAD

ADP+P

CO2

FADH

ATP

C6

Citric

Acid

(C2+C4)

Acid

C6

Kreb’s

Cycle

C5

C4

Acid

C4

Acid

Picks apart each acetyl.

C5

C4

C4

C4


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Mitochondrial

Matrix

NADH

CoA

C2

NAD

CO2

NAD

C2CoA

O

NADH

C4

Acid

NAD

NADH

NAD

O

NADH

FAD

ADP+P

CO2

FADH

ATP

C6

Citric

Acid

(C2+C4)

Acid

C6

Kreb’s

Cycle

C5

C4

Acid

C4

Acid

X 2

C5

C4

C4

C4


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Electron

Transport


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Occurs along

the Cristae

of the inner

membrane


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Enzyme A

Enzyme B

Enzyme C

Enzyme D

Cristae

The Cristae membrane

has a series of

embedded enzymes

Each enzyme

accepts a lower

energy Hydrogen ion


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ADP+P

ADP+P

ADP+P

ATP

ATP

ATP

Enzyme A

H

Enzyme B

H

Enzyme C

H

Enzyme D

NADH

H

NAD

Hydrogen acceptors pass

excited electrons to the

highest enzymes

As the hydrogen passes 'down' to

lower energy enzymes,

ATP is formed at each transfer


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(10x)

ADP+P

ADP+P

ADP+P

ATP

ATP

ATP

Enzyme A

H

Enzyme B

H

Enzyme C

H

Enzyme D

NADH

H

NAD

This process repeats

for each of the 10 NAD's

from each glucose.

Energy from NAD can

produce 30 ATP's from each

glucose.


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FADH

ADP+P

ADP+P

ATP

ATP

Enzyme A

H

Enzyme B

FAD

H

Enzyme C

H

Enzyme D

2x

The 2 FADH's from each

glucose account for

4 more ATP's.

FADH is lower in energy

and passes its H's to

lower energy enzymes.


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Enzyme A

O

Enzyme B

Enzyme C

H

Enzyme D

Meanwhile, energy depleted

hydrogens are building up

at the end of the chain.

H

H

6x

H`

H

Six molecules of

water are formed

this way.

H

H

Oxygen atoms 'swoop' in

and pick up pairs of hydrogens

forming water molecules.

H2O


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Balanced Equation

C6H12O6

+ 6 O2

6 CO2

+ 6 H2O

Everything else is ‘recycled’.


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FADH’s: 4 ATP’s

-2 ATP’s

Activation Energy:

Total ATP production

from one glucose:

Glycolysis: 4 ATP’s

Kreb’s Cycle: 2 ATP’s

NADH’s: 30 ATP’s

40 ATP’s

Total Potential : 38 ATP’s


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Fermentation:

Anaerobic

Respiration


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C3~P

C3~P

ADP

ADP

ATP

ATP

PGAL

PGAL

ATP

NADH

ADP

NAD

C3

C3~P

PGA

Pyruvic Acid

ADP+P

ATP

‘C6’

C6~P

P~C6~P

C6H12O6

NADH

ATP

GLUCOSE

NAD

ADP

C3

C3~P

PGA

Pyruvic Acid

ADP+P

ATP

Glycolysis ends with the

production of Pyruvic Acid and

a net profit of 2 ATP's.

Fermentation allows continued

Glycolysis by freeing up the NAD acceptors.

Respiration can go no further without oxygen.

BUT, a profit of 2 ATP's is better than none.


Richard mayberry

C3~P

PGAL

C3

Lactic Acid

Lactic Acid Fermentation

ATP

NADH

ADP

NADH

NAD

C3

C3~P

H

PGA

Pyruvic Acid

ADP+P

ATP

Placing the hydrogens from NADH

on the Pyruvic Acid converts

it to Lactic Acid and frees up NAD

to capture more hydrogen.


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C3~P

PGAL

C2H5OH

Ethyl Alcohol

CO2

Alcoholic Fermentation

ATP

NADH

ADP

NADH

NAD

H

C3

C3~P

PGA

Pyruvic Acid

ADP+P

ATP

In yeast and other microorganisms,

adding H back to the Pyruvic Acid

produces two products:

carbon dioxide and alcohol.


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Both of these processes allow

Respiration to continue producing

at least some ATP's from glucose

until more oxygen is available.


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