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Photosynthesis. Energy for Life. Ⓒ Richard Mayberry. Two Stages:. Light Phase & Dark Phase. The Light Reactions. Light Energy. Light Energy from the sun powers photosynthesis. Light Phase. Light Energy. Chlorophyll. Coated. Thylakoid. Disks. in Grana. Light Phase.

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Photosynthesis

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Photosynthesis

Energy for Life

Ⓒ Richard Mayberry


Two Stages:

Light Phase

&

Dark Phase


The

Light

Reactions


Light Energy

Light Energy from the sun powers photosynthesis.

Light Phase


Light Energy

Chlorophyll

Coated

Thylakoid

Disks

in Grana

Light Phase

This Energy enters the chloroplasts of plant cells.


Light Energy

Chlorophyll

Coated

Thylakoid

Disks

in Grana

Light Phase

Chlorophyll converts light to chemical energy.


Breaks

Bonds

Light Energy

O

H H

O

H H

Breaks

Bonds

Chlorophyll

Coated

Thylakoid

Disks

in Grana

Light Phase

Some of this energy breaks bonds in water.


Light Energy

Chlorophyll

Coated

Thylakoid

Disks

in Grana

Light Phase

O2

O

H H

O

H H

Oxygen gas is released by the cell.


NADP

Light Energy

H H

NADPH2

NADP

Chlorophyll

NADPH2

Coated

Thylakoid

Disks

in Grana

Light Phase

O2

H H

Hydrogens are collected by NADP molecules.


Light Energy

NADP

NADPH2

NADP

NADPH2

ADP

ADP

ADP

ADP

P

P

P

P

O2

O2

H H

H H

Chlorophyll

Coated

Thylakoid

Disks

in Grana

Some of the energy makes ATP molecules by bonding ADP and Phosphate.

Light Phase


The

Dark

Reactions


CO2

RuBP

Unstable

6-Carbon

Sugar

CO2 combines with RuBP to form a 6-carbon sugar.

Dark Phase


PGA

PGA

RuBP

Unstable

6-Carbon

Sugar

CO2

The sugar splits into two PGA molecules.

Dark Phase


ATP

ATP

ADP

ADP

PGA

RuBP

Unstable

6-Carbon

Sugar

CO2

PGA

ATP gives a phosphate to PGA.

Dark Phase


ATP

ATP

ADP

ADP

PGA~P

PGA

RuBP

Unstable

6-Carbon

Sugar

CO2

PGA

PGA~P

PGA~P has extra energy for the next step.

Dark Phase


ATP

ATP

P

ADP

ADP

P

PGA~P

PGA

RuBP

Unstable

6-Carbon

Sugar

CO2

PGA

PGA~P

Removing the phosphate releases energy.

Dark Phase


NADP

NADP

ATP

ATP

NADPH2

NADPH2

ADP

ADP

PGA~P

PGA

RuBP

P

Unstable

6-Carbon

Sugar

CO2

PGA

PGA~P

P

The energy helps NADPH add hydrogen to the PGA.

Dark Phase


NADP

NADP

ATP

ATP

NADPH2

NADPH2

PGAL

ADP

ADP

PGAL

PGA~P

PGA

RuBP

P

Unstable

6-Carbon

Sugar

CO2

PGA

PGA~P

P

This results in production of PGAL molecules.

Dark Phase


The plant has:

3 "Options"

for

PGAL


To Cytoplasm

Respiration

PGAL

PGAL

Send both PGAL’s out for immediate respiration.

Dark Phase


or


ATP

ADP

P

P

ATP

ADP

PGAL

GLUCOSE

PGAL

Combine 2 PGAL’s and remove the phosphates to make Glucose.

Dark Phase


or


RuBP

CH2O

H2O

Calvin Cycle

PGAL

PGAL

Combine 2 PGAL’s and split into multiple products.

Dark Phase


The Calvin Cycle

is the most efficient as it

"recycles" everything

except the

water and carbon dioxide


X 6

C6H12O6

GLUCOSE

Calvin Cycle

PGAL

RuBP

CH2O

PGAL

H2O

Six Calvin Cycles produce enough carbohydrate

to make molecule of glucose


Photosynthetic

energy from

the Sun . . .

. . . passes up

the food chain

to all living things.


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