Segregation. Jim Crow Laws. Designed to keep blacks from exercising their rights under the 15 th Amendment Literacy tests: had to prove you could read and comprehend in order to vote Poll taxes: had to pay a fee to vote
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Democratic Party members and white supremacists illegally burned the offices of the black newspaper the Daily Record and overthrew the Republican municipal government of Wilmington, NC, many of whom were black
An unknown number of blacks were killed in the violence that followed (est. of 6 to over 100)
NC Gov. Russell and US Pres. McKinley took no action against those responsible
Homer Plessy (who was 1/8th black) was arrested in Louisiana for sitting in a whites-only car on a train
Plessy sued, saying the Louisiana law was unconstitutional, but the Supreme Court ruled that so long as facilities were supplied to both blacks and whites that were “separate but equal” then de jure segregation was legal
Founded in 1909 “to promote equality of rights and to eradicate caste or race prejudice among the citizens of the United States; to advance the interest of colored citizens; to secure for them impartial suffrage; and to increase their opportunities for securing justice in the courts, education for the children, employment according to their ability and complete equality before law.”
Founders included Du Bois & Ida Wells; replaced the Niagara Movement as the premiere civil rights organization in the US
NOT a “blacks only” organization – has historically had as many Jewish members as black!