PART I. Obstacles . Early-mid 1800's. African Americans played baseball throughout the 1800s. Amateur and professional baseball was generally segregated, as were most American institutions, and pastimes.By the 1860s black amateur teams were playing against each other. All-black professional teams began in the 1880s (St. Louis Black Stockings and the NY Cuban Giants were two all-black teams).
Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
1. From Jim Crow to Jackie Robinson Baseball and Race in the United States
2. PART I
3. Early-mid 1800’s African Americans played baseball throughout the 1800s.
Amateur and professional baseball was generally segregated, as were most American institutions, and pastimes.
By the 1860s black amateur teams were playing against each other.
All-black professional teams began in the 1880s (St. Louis Black Stockings and the NY Cuban Giants were two all-black teams)
There were only a few black players who played with whites on integrated professional teams
Moses Fleetwood "Fleet" Walker, was a Black catcher for the minor league Toledo Blue Stockings.
Some players and teams protested and refused to play against teams with black players such as Fleet Walker
5. Ban on blacks in pro baseball In 1887 International League Club owners voted 6-4 to ban teams offering future contracts black players.
Henceforth, an unwritten “Gentlemen’s Agreement “ among major league and minor league owners kept black players off their teams.
6. Plessey v. Ferguson Supreme Court’s 1896 ruling in the case Plessey v. Ferguson set the precedent for legally segregated institutions, a practice that came to be known as “separate but equal”
Segregation became accepted practice throughout the United States, especially in schools… but also in baseball.
7. Jim Crow Laws From the 1880s into the 1960s, many American states enforced segregation through so called "Jim Crow" laws.
These laws outlawed African Americas from marrying whites, legalized whites only business and public spaces, barred black children from attending “white” public schools, and in some places even prevented blacks and whites from playing baseball on the same field.
8. Jim Crow baseball law in Georgia “It shall be unlawful for any amateur white baseball team to play baseball on any vacant lot or baseball diamond within two blocks of a playground devoted to the Negro race, and it shall be unlawful for any amateur colored baseball team to play baseball in any vacant lot or baseball diamond within two blocks of any playground devoted to the white race.”
9. 1890s-Early 1900s In amateur baseball, some athletes played on integrated college teams and on military teams.
Professional black players were mostly were limited to playing in exhibition games on "colored" teams on traveling a circuit known as “barnstorming “.
Black and white professional players often competed against each other during off-season games held in Cuba, where baseball was not segregated.
10. American League Commissioner Ban Johnson frowned on this practice of interracial games.
Johnson stated that:
“We want no makeshift club calling themselves Athletics to go to Cuba to be beat by colored teams”
11. Early 1900s
Some baseball owners and managers of major league teams tried to hire African Americans by describing the players as Hispanic or Native American.
12. Charlie Grant In 1901, John McGraw, co-owner and manager of the Baltimore Orioles, attempted to get black second baseman Charlie Grant into the game by pretending he was a Cherokee named Tokohama.
Grant’s true identity was discovered when black baseball fans in Chicago flocked to see one of their own playing in the majors.
Grant was forced out of the Major Leagues when his true identity was made public.
13. Kenesaw Mountain Landis Former United States District Judge
Hired to be Commissioner of Baseball in 1920
Given unlimited power to govern the game
Vetoed attempts by Major League teams to sign black players.
Outlawed MLB teams from playing in “barnstorming” games against black teams
14. PART II The Negro Leagues
15. Negro National League Organized in 1920, in Kansas City, Missouri by Andrew "Rube" Foster
The NNL folded in 1931 because of financial problems
A new NNL was organized in 1933, with seven teams
16. Negro American League Organized in 1937
Included seven teams, among them were the Kansas City Monarchs and the Birmingham Black Barons
Played against the NNL in a Black World Series
17. Two Legends of the Negro Leagues
18. Josh Gibson .359 Life-time batting average
Twice hit over .400
Hit close to 800 Home Runs during his 17 year career
Some consider Gibson to have been the greatest hitter of all-time.
Signed a contract to play with the Pittsburgh Pirates in 1943, but the contract was vetoed by Commissioner Landis
19. Satchel Paige Pitcher A baseball legend who played in the Negro Leagues from 1926-1947
Pitched against major league players in off-season barnstorming teams.
Considered by many to be the greatest pitcher ever.
20. Speaking of Satchel
"I know who's the best pitcher I ever see and it's old Satchel Paige… My fastball looks like a change of pace alongside that little pistol bullet ole Satchel shoots up to the plate."
-Hall of Famer Dizzy Dean
21. Wrapping-up Parts I & II In groups:
Share and compare the notes you have taken on Parts I & II
Write a response to the following question- Why were superstar baseball players like Josh Gibson and Satchel Paige barred from playing in the Major Leagues before the 1940s?
*Follow the directions on your assignment handout
Read the Primary Source:
The Sporting News, August 8, 1942
Answer the related questions
23. PART III
24. The “Double V Campaign” Your Task:
Read one of the following, and answer the related questions
The Pittsburgh Courier, February 14, 1942
Double V Campaign - Patriotism Crosses the Color Line: African Americans in World War II, by Clarence Taylor.
History Now, Issue 14, December 2007
25. “Double V Campaign” During WWII the black press in America praised the contributions and sacrifices black Americans were making as soldiers to help win the war, and used these contributions to call for an end to discrimination and segregations at home in the US. This effort became know as the “Double V Campaign”
“Double V” stood for…
victory overseas in the war against fascism
victory at home in the fight against racism.
26. Quinn-Ives Act New York State 1942 The act banned racial discrimination in hiring in New York State.
With 3 Major League teams calling New York City home, NY Mayor Fiorello Henry LaGuardia formed the Mayor’s Commission on Baseball to study racial discrimination in the the major leagues.
27. Lester Rodney, Sports Writer For the newspaper The Daily Worker “Negro soldiers and sailors are among those beloved heroes of the American people who have already died [in WWII] for the preservation of this country and everything this country stands for — yes, including the great game of baseball,”
28. Lester Rodney’s takes on Baseball’s Commissioner Landis in 1942 “You [Landis], the self-proclaimed ‘Czar’ of baseball, Why the man responsible for keeping Jim Crow in our National Pastime.”
“Why does your silence keep… Negro stars from taking their rightful place in our national pastime at a time when we are at war and Negro and whites are fighting together to end Hitlerism?”
29. Wendell Smith and the Pittsburgh Courier
The Courier was one of the most prominent black newspapers from 1911-1960’s
Wendell Smith, a sports journalist for Courier who was especially vocal critic of segregation.
Smith’s articles constantly called for the end to segregation throughout the United States, including professional baseball.
30. Wendell Smith takes on the Major Leagues Smith Compared the anti-Semitism of Hitler’s Germany with the segregation of baseball. He claimed that the major leagues played…
“the same game as Hitler. They discriminate, segregate, and hold down a minor race just as he does. While Hitler cripples the Jews, the leaders of our national pastime refuse to recognize our black ball players”
-Pittsburgh Courier, December 10, 1938
31. Your task: Read two of Wendell Smith’s articles from the Pittsburgh Courier in 1945.
Answer the related questions
32. Branch Rickey 1942- Hired as General Manager of the Brooklyn Dodgers
1943- The Dodgers board of directors approved Rickey’s plan to begin a search for the “right” black player to break the color-line.
1944- Baseball’s Commissioner, Kennesaw Mountain Landis Dies
Landis was replaced by
Albert “Happy” Chandler
34. A New Commissioner Albert “Happy” Chandler
Former US Senator and Governor of Kentucky
Became Commissioner of Baseball in 1945
Favored the desegregation of baseball
35. “Happy” Quotes "For twenty-four years Judge Landis wouldn't let a black man play… Landis consistently blocked any attempts to put blacks and whites together on a big league field.“
"If they (black men) can fight and die on Okinawa, Guadalcanal [and] in the South Pacific, they can play ball in America."
36. Jackie Robinson The Trailblazer
37. Early years Born January 31, 1919, in Cairo, Georgia.
Raised in Southern California
Attended college at UCLA California where he was star in 4 sports
Left college due to financial hardship
Moved to Hawaii to play semi-pro football.
38. Jackie Robinson Drafted into the U.S. Army in 1942 and promoted from Private to Second Lieutenant
In the Army Robinson challenged racial discrimination when he refused to move to the back of a segregated bus during training.
honorably discharged from the Army in 1944
39. 1945- In the Negro Leagues Played for the Kansas City Monarchs in 1945
Played 47 games
.387 Batting Average
5 home runs
13 stolen bases
Played in the 1945 Negro League All-Star Game
40. 1945- Signing with the Dodgers Jim Crow in baseball came crashing when Branch Rickey signed Jackie Robinson to a contract with the Brooklyn Dodgers
41. 1946 Jackie Robinson spent the 1946 playing for the Minor League Montreal Royals
42. April 15, 1947 Jackie Robinson made his major league debut
Almost 27,000 were in attendance at Ebbets Field, in Brooklyn NY, to see the Dodgers 1st baseman break the color major league barrier
14,000 of those Ebbets Field fans were Black
Later that season Jackie was named National League Rookie of the Year
43. Larry Doby First Black Player in the American League Signed by Cleveland Indians in July 1947… just 3 months after Robinson broke the MLB color barrier
7 time all-star
Helped the Indians win the American League pennant and the World Series in 1948
44. Satchel Signs with Cleveland Leroy “Satchel” Paige singed a Major League contract on his 42nd birthday (July 7, 1948) with the Cleveland Indians
He was the first black pitcher in the American League
In 1971, Leroy "Satchel" Paige was elected to National Baseball Hall of Fame.
45. Wrapping-Up Part III In groups:
Share and compare the notes you have taken on Part III and Jackie Robinson
Why was the color barrier in professional baseball bound to come crashing down in the 1940’s?
*Follow the directions on your assignment handout