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Basic Kinematics. Course Content. Introduction to the Course Biomechanical Concepts Related to Human Movement Anatomical Concepts Related to Human Movement Applications in Human Movement. Course Content. Introduction to the Course Biomechanical Concepts Related to Human Movement

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Basic Kinematics

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Basic Kinematics


Course Content

  • Introduction to the Course

  • Biomechanical Concepts Related to Human Movement

  • Anatomical Concepts Related to Human Movement

  • Applications in Human Movement


Course Content

  • Introduction to the Course

  • Biomechanical Concepts Related to Human Movement

  • Anatomical Concepts Related to Human Movement

  • Applications in Human Movement


Biomechanical Concepts

  • Basic Kinematic Concepts

  • Vector Algebra

  • Basic Kinetic Concepts


Biomechanical Concepts

  • Basic Kinematic Concepts

  • Vector Algebra

  • Basic Kinetic Concepts


Basic Kinematic Concepts

  • Variables for Describing Motion

  • Reference Systems for Describing Motion of the Human Body and Its Segments

  • Guidelines for Describing Motion of the Human Body and Its Segments


Rigid Body Mechanics


What is kinematics?

  • Spatial and temporal characteristics

  • Qualitative or quantitative

  • Linear & angular motion


Why use kinematics?

  • Practical: Provides a standard for us in performing, teaching, or evaluating a skill

  • Research: Once we describe, we can ask why?

Problem with kinematics?

  • Practical: Proper kinematics does not always mean proper force application


Basic Kinematic Concepts

  • Variables for Describing Motion

  • Reference Systems for Describing Motion of the Human Body & Its Segments

  • Guidelines for Describing Motion of the Human Body & Its Segments


Kinematic Variables

  • Time

  • Position

  • Displacement & distance

  • Velocity & speed

  • Acceleration


WHEN?

HOW OFTEN?

IN WHAT ORDER?

HOW LONG?

Most basic analysis

Examples:

Cadence

Stride time

Temporal patterning

Time – Temporal Analysis


Temporal Patterning


Stance

Swing

Temporal Patterning


Absolute vs. Relative Timing


Position

  • position - location in space relative to some reference point

  • Linear position (s)

    • x,y,z coordinates

  • Angular position ()

  • Units

WHERE?


Displacement (s, )

Final change in position

Vector quantity

Distance (p, )

Sum of all changes in position

Scalar quantity

Displacement & Distance

HOW FAR?

  • Units (m, °)


Velocity (v, )

Vector quantity

position  time

Units (m.s-1, °.s-1)

Acceleration (a, )

Vector quantity

velocity  time

Units (m.s-2, °.s-2)

Insight into forces/torques

Velocity & Acceleration

HOW QUICKLY IS VELOCITY CHANGING?

HOW FAST?


Basic Kinematic Concepts

  • Types of Motion

  • Variables for Describing Motion

  • Reference Systems for Describing Motion of the Human Body & Its Segments

  • Guidelines for Describing Motion of the Human Body & Its Segments


Reference Systems: Linear

+y

vertical

horizontal

-x

+x

Must define origin of reference system to quantify kinematics.

horizontal

+z

-y


90°

180°

270°

Absolute Reference Systems: Angular

/2 rad

¼ rev

CCW +

  • rad

    ½ rev

2 rad

1 rev

3/2 rad

¾ rev


Relative Reference Systems: Angular


Relative Reference Systems

  • All Joints @ 0except

  • Ankle @ 90

  • Forearm varies

Fundamental

Standing

Position

Anatomical

Standing

Position


Reference Systems for Measuring Joint Position & Displacement

90

140

140

0


0

40

90

0

90


Basic Kinematic Concepts

  • Types of Motion

  • Variables for Describing Motion

  • Reference Systems for Describing Motion of the Human Body & Its Segments

  • Guidelines for Describing Motion of the Human Body & Its Segments


1. Distinguish between motion & position of joints & segments.

A

B


2. Recognize that either segment can rotate about a joint.


3. Recognize that bones move linearly as well as angularly.


4. Understand that movement generally occurs in oblique planes around oblique axes.


5. When observing motion, look at the plane, down the axis.


Summary

  • Identify the system of interest

  • Identify the type(s) of motion of interest

  • Identify the reference system for the motion

  • Describe precisely the temporal & spatial characteristics of that motion using appropriate terminology for the situation

    • Time

    • Position

    • Displacement (ROM)

    • Velocity

    • Acceleration


For the next lecture day:

  • Lecture Topic #2

    • Subtopic C – Vector Algebra


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