Chapter 8 Opener Farmers and nursery workers plant tree seedlings on degraded land in Costa Rica.
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Figure 8.1For a range of land uses in West Africa, the average number of vertebrate native forest species declines with increasing intensity of human impacts, and the number of open-habitat species increases
Figure 8.2Landscapes vary in the extent to which humans have altered the patterns of species composition and natural vegetation through various activities; ecosystem processes also vary
Figure 8.3Two types of coffee management systems:(A) Shade coffee is grown under a diverse canopy of trees; (B) Sun coffee is grown as a monoculture
Figure 8.4Ecosystem management involves bringing together all of the stakeholders who affect a large ecosystem and receive benefits from it
Figure 8.5(A) Many bird of paradise species are endemic to New Guinea;(B) Payakona and other New Guinea tribesmen use bird of paradise feathers in ceremonial costumes
Figure 8.7Extractive reserves established in Brazil provide a reason to maintain forests;the trunks of wild rubber trees are cut for their latex
Figure 8.8Patterns of payments for 103 ecosystem services (PES) projects from 37 countries: (A) Number of projects addressing different types of threat; (B) Funding sources for the projects
Figure 8.8Patterns of payments for 103 ecosystem services (PES) projects from 37 countries: (A) Number of projects addressing different types of threat
Figure 8.11Decisions must be made about whether the best course of action is to restore a degraded site completely, partially restore it, replace the original species with different species, or take no action
Figure 8.12(A) In the late 1930s, members of the CCC participated in a U. of Wisconsin project to restorethe wild species of a midwestern prairie; (B) The prairie as it looks today
Figure 8.13(A) The Freshkills landfill on Staten Island while active dumping was still occurring; (B) The future planned restoration of the site, based on an artistâ€™s viewpoint