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Vascular Plants. Moving to Land. Overtime, 500 millions of years ago, plants on Earth evolved from aquatic to terrestrial environments What are some problems to overcome? Material transport Structure/support Desiccation Gas exchange. Benefits to moving to land.

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Moving to Land

  • Overtime, 500 millions of years ago, plants on Earth evolved from aquatic to terrestrial environments

  • What are some problems to overcome?

    • Material transport

    • Structure/support

    • Desiccation

    • Gas exchange


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Benefits to moving to land

  • easier access to sunlight for photosynthesis,

  • continuous free movement of carbon dioxide and oxygen


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Vascular Plant Organs

Roots, stems and leaves


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Vascular Plant Organs

  • Roots – Absorb water and dissolved nutrients from soil

  • Anchor plants – in the soil and prevent them from being knocked down by wind

  • Storage – site for food storage


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Vascular Plant Organs

  • Stems – Support - hold leaves up towards the sun for optimal exposure for photosynthesis

  • Transport – between roots and leaves (via vascular tissue, phloem and xylem

  • Storage – site for food storage


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Vascular Plant Organ

  • Leaves – Photosynthesis and Cellular respiration

  • Formulas????

    • Modified to reduce transpiration

      • Cuticle and pores


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Vascular Tissues

  • http://www.harcourtschool.com/activity/vascular/vascular.html


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Vascular Plant Tissues

  • XYLEM– Carries water and dissolved nutrients from the soil, from the roots, into the stem and into the leaves.

  • It forms a continuous set of tubes that stretch from the roots to the leaves


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Vascular Plant Tissue

  • PHLOEM– Distributes food made in the leaves throughout the plant.

  • The glucose produced by photosynthesisin the leaves, moves down towards the roots.


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Questions

  • The direction of glucose transport can be reversed in situations when the glucose levels in the roots are greater than in the leaves.

  • In which situations might this occur?



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Vascular Plants

  • 10 phyla

    • Includes:1) seedless vascular plants (ie. ferns)

      2) plants with unprotected seeds

      (ie. Cone-bearing plants) 3) flowering plants


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Similarities with mosses

  • 1) free-living gametophyte

  • 2) no seeds

  • 3) mobile sperm that require water for fertilization


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Differences from mosses

  • 1) a vascular system which transports water, nutrients and photosynthetic products around the plant,

  • 2) sporophytes as the dominant life stage

  • 3) stomata


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Fern

  • Most diverse group of plants

  • Most abundant after flowering plants

  • Alternation of generation between gametophyte (haploid) and sporophyte (diploid)


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Fern Life Cycle

  • http://trc.ucdavis.edu/biosci10v/bis10v/media/ch15/fern_life_cycle_v2.html

  • Takes notes from fig 10.7


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Fern Life Cycle

-gametophyte (n) makes gametes sperm (n) and egg (n)

-gametes fuse when mature, fertilization

-zygote (2n) develops attached to gametophyte (n)

-zygote becomes spore-bearing sporophytes (2n)

-spores (n) disperse and develop into gametophytes(n)


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Fern Sporophyte

-large leaves are called fronds

-fronds contain spores on the underside, contained in a sac called sporangia

-sporangia cluster together to form a sori



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Young sporophyte growing out of a gametophyte

Sori containing clusters of sporangia

Grape-looking structures are individual sporangium



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