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Socio-Economic Causes and Effects of Human African Trypanosomiasis in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Jen Wilson And Silvia Escudero. http://www.icp.ucl.ac.be/~opperd/parasites.iages/tryps6.gif. The Disease. Parasitic Transmitted by Tsetse Fly Infects humans and cattle

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Socio-Economic Causes and Effects of Human African Trypanosomiasis in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

Jen Wilson

And

Silvia Escudero

http://www.icp.ucl.ac.be/~opperd/parasites.iages/tryps6.gif

the disease
The Disease
  • Parasitic
  • Transmitted by Tsetse Fly
  • Infects humans and cattle
  • Kills over 50,000 people every year (Kabayo 2002)

http://www.gla.ac.uk/ibls/II/parasitology/cureit.htm

http://www.uen.org/utahlink/activities/view_activity.cgi?activity_id=3023

the disease3
The Disease
  • Swelling occurs at site of bite.
  • Infection travels through blood stream.
  • Attacks central nervous system.
  • Results in swelling of brain.
  • Drowsiness during day; insomnia at night.
  • Death may occur in six months if no treatment is done (Smith 2006).
endemicity status
Endemicity Status

Democratic Republic of the Congo

http://pages.unibas.ch/diss/2004/DissB_6961.pdf

history
History
  • 17th – early 20th centuries: sleeping sickness and other vector-bourn diseases caused more human deaths than all other causes combined.
  • 1940’s-1960’s:vector control programs, modern drugs and insecticides led to the control of disease
  • Past 20 years:major epidemics and a resurgence of disease WHY? (Gubler 1998)
resurgence of sleeping sickness in drc
Resurgence of Sleeping Sickness in DRC

http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/vol11no09/04-1020.htm#cit

human influences on tsetse fly
Human Influences on Tsetse Fly
  • Population Growth / Urbanization
  • Exploitation of Land
  • Poor Health Policies
  • Climate Change
population growth urbanization
Population Growth/Urbanization
  • Population growth
  • Quick movement to urban areas
  • Movement is unplanned and uncontrolled
  • Inadequate housing, poor waste management, dirty water, densely packed people, etc.
  • Ideal conditions for tsetse fly

http://www.kfw-entwicklungsbank.de/EN_Home/Topics/Good_Governance/index.jsp

kinshasa
Kinshasa
  • Study in 2005 in Kinshasa to determine where the greatest rate of infection was.
  • Results showed that peri-urban areas along rivers had high concentrations of tsetse flies (De Deken 2005).
  • People move to urban places and head to rivers for water where there is a high risk of infection.

http://www.eolc-observatory.net/global_analysis/congokinshasa.htm

land use
Land Use
  • Tsetse flies originally found in low lands
  • People are increasing land use and moving to the high lands (Eradicating Tsetse)
  • Farmers bring cattle with them
  • Cattle carry the disease and take it to tsetse-free areas.

http://www.iaea.org/OurWork/ST/NA/NAAL/agri/ent/entTSETSEmain.php

health policies
Health Policies
  • 1960-70’s : threat for disease decreased
  • Health policy decisions decreased surveillance, prevention and control.
  • Lack of support from developed world.
  • DRC uses mass screening: study in 2004 showed that the effectiveness of testing is less than 50% (Robays 2004).
climate change
Climate Change
  • Not too much proof correlation.
  • Climate change mostly linked to human consumption.
  • Temperature and precipitation are most important factors determining whether the vector can survive.
  • A rise in temperature could conceivably increase the range of the vector.

http://www.solcomhouse.com/globalwarming.htm

effects of disease
Effects of Disease
  • Depletion of Livestock
  • Loss of Capital
  • Urbanization and Economic

Degradation

livestock
Livestock
  • Nagana: cattle variety of disease
  • Kills 3 million cows a year (Pearce 2002).
  • Decrease in meat production and other by products such as milk
  • Contributes to protein shortages in people
  • Farmers lose labor from the animals => poverty

http://www.iaea.org/NewsCenter/Features/Tsetse/tsetse_gallery/pages/002.shtml

where is the problem
Where is the problem?

http://www.genomics.liv.ac.uk/tryps/problem.html

capital loss
Capital Loss
  • Meeting held in Ethiopia to discuss ways to fight sleeping sickness in 2004
  • Experts reported that African countries lose 4.5 billion dollars every year due to the impact of disease on agriculture (Deutsche Press 2004).
  • Livestock owners administer 35 million dollars worth of doses of medication every year; each at about 1 dollar (Torr et al. 2005).
  • Loss of jobs
urbanization economic degradation
Urbanization/Economic Degradation
  • Fear of disease spreads and families move away from fertile lands.
  • Less people on fertile lands growing crops => economic degradation (Kabayo 2002).
  • Urbanization loops around and becomes a cause for increase in annual infections.
connections
Connections

Urbanization

S

S

Number of people exposed

Threat

S

S

Number of people infected

connections19
Connections

S

Economy

Productivity

S

S

Workforce

S

S

Vector control programs

Animal Labor

O

Number of infected people

O

O

S

Number of tsetse flies

Number of infected cows

S

references
References

“Cure It.” Institute of Biomedical Life Sciences. University of Glasgow. 7 April 2007 <http://www.gla.ac.uk/ibls/II/parasitology/cureit.htm>.

De Deken, Redgi. “Trypanosomiasis in Kinshasa: Distribution of the Vector, Glossina fuscipes quanzensis, and Risk of Transmission in Peri-Urban Area.” Medical and Veterinary Entomology. 19.4 353-359 (2005). Blackwell Synergy. 6 April 2007. <http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1365-2915.2005.00580>.

“Democratic Republic of the Congo (Congo-Kinshasa).” The International Observatory on End of Life Care. 9 April 2007. <http://www.eolc-observatory.net/global_analysis/congokinshasa.htm>.

“Eradicating Tsetse from the Southern Rift Valley of Ethiopia.” WREN Media. 6 April 2007. <http://tc.iaea.org/tcweb/publications/factsheets/ethiopia.pdf>.

“Good Governance.” KfW Entwicklungsbank. 9 April 2007 <http://www.kfw-entwicklungsbank.de/EN_Home/Topics/Good_Governance/index.jsp>.

Gubler, D.J. “Resurgent Vector-Borne Diseases as a Global Health Problem.” Emerging Infectious Diseases. Sept. 1998. 6 April 2007. <http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/vol4no3/gubler.htm>.

Kabayo, J.P. (2002). Aiming to eliminate tsetse from Africa. TRENDS in Parasitology, 11, 473-475.

Lutumba, Pascal. “Trypanosomiasis Control, Democratic Republic of Congo, 1993-2003.” Emerging Infectious Diseases. 11.9 (2005). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 9 April 2007. <http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/vol11no09/04-1020.htm#cit>.

“Meeting Held in Ethiopia to Dscuss Ways to Fight Sleeping Sickness.” (2004). Deutsche Presse-Agentur. 7 March 2007. <http://web.lexis-nexis.com/universe/>.

Opperdoes, Fred. “African Trypanosomiasis or Sleeping Sickness.” 19 Oct. 1997. 7 April 2007 <http://www.icp.ucl.ac.be/~opperd/parasites/tryps9.htm>.

Pearce, F. (2002). An atomic-powered plan to end sleeping sickness. The Boston Globe,3. Retrieved March 7,2007, from Lexis-Nexis Academic database.

references21
References

Schmid, Caecilia. “10-Day Melarsoprol Treatment of Trypanosoma Brucei Gambiense Sleeping Sickness: From Efficacy to Effectiveness.” 21 Sept. 2004. 9 April 2007. <http://pages.unibas.ch/diss/2004/DissB_6961.pdf>.

Smith, Scott. “Sleeping Sickness.” Medical Encyclopedia. 27 Nov. 2007. Medline Plus. 7 April 2007. <http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001362.htm>.

Robays, Jo. “The Effectiveness of Active Population Screening and Treatment for Sleeping Sickness Control in the Democratic Republic of Congo.” Tropical Medicine & International Health. 9.5 542-550. (2004). Blackwell Synergy. 6 April 2007. <http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/links/doi/10.1111%2Fj.1365-3156.2004.01240.x>.

Torr, S.J., Hargrove, J.W., & Vale, G.A. (2005) Towards a rational policy for dealing with tsetse. TRENDS in Parasitology, 11, 537-541.

“Tsetse Flies.” Entomology Unit. 2004. International Atomic Energy Agency. 9 April 2007. <http://www.iaea.org/OurWork/ST/NA/NAAL/agri/ent/entTSETSEmain.php>.

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