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Secondary Education & Training In Africa (SEIA): Knowledge & Competencies for Economic Growth and Social Cohesion. SEIA, Africa Region, World Bank WWW.WORLDBANK.ORG/AFR/SEIA. Presented in Paris, WGICSD, November 2007. The SEIA program.

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Secondary Education & Training In Africa (SEIA):Knowledge & Competencies for Economic Growth and Social Cohesion

SEIA, Africa Region, World Bank

WWW.WORLDBANK.ORG/AFR/SEIA

Presented in Paris, WGICSD, November 2007


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The SEIA program

  • To support countries develop long term strategies for long term development & improvement SE in SSA

  • Focus on Secondary Ed: After PE & before TE,

    ages 12-18, covering JSE & SSE

  • Emphasis on General Secondary Education , complementing earlier work on SD In SSA

    (Johanson & Adams, 2004)

  • Three regional conferences and eight thematic studies…

  • Summary paper for Accra Conference, May 2007

  • Collaboration and support from a large number of multilateral and bilateral donor agencies: ADEA, UNESCO (Dakar), Norway, Ireland, Netherlands…..

Steven Obeegadoo for the SEIA Team, Africa Region HD, World Bank




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Comparative SE GER (%) Sub-Saharan Africa Bank

Source: UIS Global Education Digest 2006

Steven Obeegadoo for the SEIA Team, Africa Region HD, World Bank


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Kenya: time for secondary education ? Bank

  • In 2004 over 657,000 pupils sat for the Kenya Certificate of Primary Education, - up from 588,000 in 2003.

  • An increase of almost 12% in the number of exam candidates - the highest increase to be recorded during the past decade.

  • More than half of those who left primary school last year cannot be accommodated at Kenya's 4,000 public secondary schools (the country has 17,600 government-run primary schools).

  • While some primary school leavers will be able to attend private secondary schools, the fees these institutions charge are beyond the reach of most parents - whose children may be forced to abandon formal schooling.

Steven Obeegadoo for the SEIA Team, Africa Region HD, World Bank


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Illustrative relationship between human capital thresholds and economic growth

Contribution of human capital to economic growth

High income countries that want to stay competitive and need to respond to with a demand for highly educated personnel

linear regression line

Middle income countries confronted with a demand for personnel with more advanced education and training

RealModel

Low income countries that have not reached the basic education threshold

To overcome human capital constraints on development in growing low income economies, expansion of access to junior secondary education in particular is critical

Human Capital Stock

  • Source: Adapted from UNESCO BREDA 2005 and Berthélemy (2004)

Steven Obeegadoo for the SEIA Team, Africa Region HD, World Bank


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Sub-Sahara Africa Pop: and economic growth

732 m (2005)

881 m (2015)

960 m (2020)

Steven Obeegadoo for the SEIA Team, Africa Region HD, World Bank


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Africa’s SE Challenges for the 21 and economic growthst Century

  • Progress in NER to achieve EFA, but population growth will require extra budgetary support:

  • Demand for JSE and SSE growing: 9 years of basic education, then pathways to SE & VTET

  • African Economies need better-skilled labor for growth and foreign investment

  • In most SSA countries the local employers are dissatisfied with primary and JSE graduates’ knowledge and competencies; However, reliable data remain scarce

  • Public Resources need justification: Access, Efficiency, Attainment, Equity, Quality & Relevance of Learning and Skills

Steven Obeegadoo for the SEIA Team, Africa Region HD, World Bank


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Africa’s SE Challenges for the 21 and economic growthst Century

  • Fiscal constraints and priorities: sustainable post-basic expansion requires significant gains in cost-efficiency

  • In SSA on average less than 25-30% of the age cohort completes JSE and less than 10-20% completes SSE: significant wastage

  • Lessons from Asia: BEFORE and DURING expansion improve & maintain Quality

  • Africa’s challenge will be to “transit” from an ELITE post-primary to a “MASS” JSE, and increased equitable enrolment at post-basic levels with flexible LLL pathways

  • Even at current transition and attainment rates African SE enrollments will put significant pressure on the systems

Steven Obeegadoo for the SEIA Team, Africa Region HD, World Bank


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REALITY CHECK: SECONDARY EDUCATION CLASSROOM and economic growth

Steven Obeegadoo for the SEIA Team, Africa Region HD, World Bank

Photo: Jbregman Lagos 2005


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In summary, in SSA the quality and efficiency of BOTH primary and secondary education need to improve before and during its expansion to meet the key requirements of economic growth and social developmentWhat are the implications?

Steven Obeegadoo for the SEIA Team, Africa Region HD, World Bank


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Emerging Messages from the SEIA study primary and secondary education need to improve before and during its expansion to meet the key requirements of economic growth and social development

  • Bottom-up approach:

    • Broad Access to Primary remains priority #1

    • Expansion sequential, but gradual

  • How resources are spent is as important as the amount of resources available:

    • Equity in Public Resources Allocation

    • Decentralization is a global trend in SE

  • Public-Private-Partnerships (PPPs) are essential:

    • mobilize additional SE resources

    • nurture community support

Steven Obeegadoo for the SEIA Team, Africa Region HD, World Bank


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Emerging messages from the SEIA study primary and secondary education need to improve before and during its expansion to meet the key requirements of economic growth and social development

  • Quality improved: JSE and SSE Graduate Profiles & Attainment Standards should be in place, understood by stakeholders, and monitored for impact;

  • Modernizing JSE and SSE:

    • Curricula restructuring and content renewal: new subjects ICT / S&T / Civics / Health / Economics

    • Re-invest in SE Teacher Training

    • Review JSE and SSE Teacher certification process

    • Improve SE outcome results by cost-efficient monitoring of SE teachers and SE schools (currently huge data problems)

Steven Obeegadoo for the SEIA Team, Africa Region HD, World Bank


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Science &Technology: Curricula & Teaching primary and secondary education need to improve before and during its expansion to meet the key requirements of economic growth and social development

JSE-SSE Classic

Subject-oriented; Difficult to integrate new subjects

Chalk & Talk, limited Info sources; fixed classroom & lab hours

Teacher source of Knowledge; Student memorizes

Project & team work difficult to accommodate

Teaching is mainly Exam & Selection driven

Assessment of key

Competencies mainly absent (no employment link)

KE in 21st Century

Attainment targets linked across S&T subjects and regularly reviewed

Student analyses facilitated by Teacher; diverse info sources (teamwork, ICT applications)

Science & Technology focuses on Humanity / World-we-live-in as returning S&T themes

Students develop “projects” through teamwork

Instruction is “Content-Profile driven”; Exams focus on Certification and (core) Competencies

Exams & Assessment regularly reviewed and reformed

Source: JBregman, World Bank, SEIA, 2005

Steven Obeegadoo for the SEIA Team, Africa Region HD, World Bank


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SE Graduate Profile Indicators primary and secondary education need to improve before and during its expansion to meet the key requirements of economic growth and social development:

Competencies: Knowledge, Skills , Attitudes, and Values:

Individual

Institutional

Collective goals

External Factors:

Youth / Adolescent world (Pedagogy)

Africa / country cultural, social, and economic relevance

International job-mobility and quality

Use of language, symbols and texts

Use interactively

Knowledge

Information (ICT tools)

Technology

Working in Groups

Relate well to Others

Ability for Teamwork

Manage & resolve conflicts

Act Autonomously

See the big picture

Steven Obeegadoo for the SEIA Team, Africa Region HD, World Bank


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Promising practices in SE in SSA primary and secondary education need to improve before and during its expansion to meet the key requirements of economic growth and social development

  • Madagascar changing from 5 to 7-year Primary (Kenya 8+4; Mauritius 6+5+2)

  • Namibia: Life Sciences as a new subject in JSE combining Biology, Agriculture and Environmental Education

  • Botswana: Integrated Science includes biology, chemistry, physics, agriculture and environmental education

  • Botswana, South Africa and Ghana: school-based results amount to 20-30% of JSE examination marks

Steven Obeegadoo for the SEIA Team, Africa Region HD, World Bank


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Does SEIA Report shed light on Skills Development? primary and secondary education need to improve before and during its expansion to meet the key requirements of economic growth and social development

Prime concern SEIA is Development & Expansion SE:

  • Focus is Education and not Training

  • Focus is formal settings rather than NFE or

    Informal Education

    But emerging messages ,within SEIA perspective, do relate to Skills Development…..

Steven Obeegadoo for the SEIA Team, Africa Region HD, World Bank


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SEIA AND SKILLS DEVELOPMENT primary and secondary education need to improve before and during its expansion to meet the key requirements of economic growth and social development

Three historical tasks of the transition from selective elite SE system to a mass system:

  • Expand access to 9/10 yrs Basic Education incorporating all or part JSE

  • Create opportunities for further formal/informal learning for all

  • Prepare students for work in the context of a technologically driven global economy

Steven Obeegadoo for the SEIA Team, Africa Region HD, World Bank


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SEIA AND SKILLS DEVELOPMENT primary and secondary education need to improve before and during its expansion to meet the key requirements of economic growth and social development

Distinguish :

  • Junior Secondary Education

    - Part of Basic Education with core curriculum for all including generic skills

  • Senior Secondary Education

    -Diversified pathways incl. TVE to offer a wide range of opportunities to JSE graduates and strengthen linkages with the world of work

Steven Obeegadoo for the SEIA Team, Africa Region HD, World Bank


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COMPLEMENTARY WB STUDY ON SKILLS DEVELOPMENT- KEY MESSAGES primary and secondary education need to improve before and during its expansion to meet the key requirements of economic growth and social development

  • Skills Development: What?Where?When?How?

  • Emphasise first chances

  • Promote curriculum choice

  • Distinguish TVE from Non Formal Training

  • TVET works best where market driven

  • Enterprise based training has positive impact but is not the whole solution

    (Adams, 2007)

Steven Obeegadoo for the SEIA Team, Africa Region HD, World Bank


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PLACE OF SKILLS DEVELOPMENT ON PPE AGENDA primary and secondary education need to improve before and during its expansion to meet the key requirements of economic growth and social development

  • PPE as the emerging major challenge in education for Sub Saharan Africa

    e.g UNESCO, ADEA, CONFEMEN

  • WB/SEIA supporting ADEA 2008 Biennial Conference:

    PPE Working definition:

    • Following primary education or its equivalent

    • Age 11/12 +

    • In principle open-ended

    • All forms, modes and types

    • Holistic

    • For life, society, work and further learning

    • Multiple providers and resources

Steven Obeegadoo for the SEIA Team, Africa Region HD, World Bank


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THANK YOU primary and secondary education need to improve before and during its expansion to meet the key requirements of economic growth and social development

SEIA website:

WWW.WORLDBANK.ORG/AFR/SEIA

Steven Obeegadoo for the SEIA Team, Africa Region HD, World Bank


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