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Job Training PowerPoint Presentation - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Goal: retrain workers displaced from automation of factory jobs. Three year program ... 80% still retain jobs 2 years later. Strive continues follow up and ...

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"Large scale unemployment during a recession is bad enough, but large scale unemployment during a period of prosperity would be intolerable."

John F. Kennedy, 1961

Manpower Development and Training Act of 1962 but large scale unemployment during a period of prosperity would be intolerable."

  • Goal: retrain workers displaced from automation of factory jobs

  • Three year program

  • Authorized training allowance for unemployed participants

  • Failure: training given in the wrong skills

Work Incentive Program 1967 but large scale unemployment during a period of prosperity would be intolerable."

  • Goal: encourage welfare recipients to work through

    • regulatory requirements

    • incentives

  • Success rate: 2-3%

  • WIN II served to force participants into low status work

Comprehensive Employment and Training Act of 1973 but large scale unemployment during a period of prosperity would be intolerable."

  • Target population: economically disadvantaged, unemployed, or under-employed

  • Block grants to state and local governments

  • Supporting public & private job training: Job Corps and Summer Youth Employment

Job Training Partnership Act but large scale unemployment during a period of prosperity would be intolerable."1982

  • Goals:

    • To prepare youth and unskilled adults for entry into the labor force

    • Make job training affordable to those economically disadvantaged individuals

  • Provisions:

    • Vocational education

    • On the job training between 2-6 mo.

Family Support Act 1988 (Job Opportunity & Basic Skills Training Program)

  • Comprehensive welfare-to-work program

  • Goal: give AFDC recipients the chance to participate in job training, work, and education leading to economic self-sufficiency

  • Provides transportation & child care

Policy Issues Leading to Improvement of Lower Class Training Program)

  • Job creation

  • Improvement of income from work (EITC, wage subsidies, minimum wage, etc)

  • Adjustments of tax rates

  • Subsidized child care & child support

  • Health insurance extended to low wage workers

  • Unemployment insurance accounting for changing employment conditions

Job Training Programs Training Program)

  • Functions:

    • Enhance job specific skills

    • Assist with job search

    • Access to jobs

  • Failures:

    • Skills valued

    • Connect trainees to best job opportunities

Changes Making Job Training Programs Essential Training Program)

  • From 1979-1993: gap between earnings of people with 4 year college degrees and high school diplomas increased from 38% to an 80% difference

  • GED/High school diploma does not certify basic skills

Social Capitol Training Program)

  • Granovetter  social networks play an important role in maintaining limited access to good employment opportunities for low-wage workers

  • Holzer  isolation from informal referral networks excludes disadvantaged populations from the work force

Job Training is More than Skill Acquisition Training Program)

  • To end poverty, what is need “is more than a job skill-more than job training. An attitudinal change is needed: a need for self-esteem, incentive to train in a skill, family counseling, and above all, a subjective feeling of competence and equality with others” Father Soto

  • Employers in low-skill market look at:

    • Attitude towards work

    • Discipline (through work history)

    • Punctuality

Essential Characteristics of Job Training Programs Training Program)

  • Human assets: assist disadvantaged people in developing skills for private sector jobs

  • Social assets: access to employment in expanding industries

Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act

August 22, 1996

  • strong work requirements

  • performance bonuses for states

  • support for families (incl. child care)

Results achieved by Clinton: Act

  • Since Jan ’93: welfare rolls fell from 14.1 mil to 6.6 mil

    (fewest number since 1968)

  • 2.4 % of all Americans are on Welfare (lowest level since 1966)

$200 mil for top 10 states Act

States with best record moving parents on welfare into jobs:





Oct ’97 – Sep ‘98 Act

1.3 mil welfare recipients went to work

80% were still working 3 months later

23% increased of their income

“The Welfare to Work Partnership” Act

1997: 105 businesses

1998: 15,000 businesses

hiring 65,000 welfare recipients

“Federal Government’s Hiring Initiative” Act

By August 1999: 14,000

By May 2000: 29,000

“Father’s work” Act

Grants for low-income fathers who are not able to support their children financially

$ 125 mil for 40,000 grants

Tax credits for Employers Act

“Welfare-to-Work-Tax-Credit” offers a credit equal to:

- 35% of the first $10,000 in wages for the first year

- 50% for the first $10,000 in the second year

- total credit up to $8,500

Bush Administration Act

High Growth Job Training Initiative

-A strategic effort to prepare workers to take advantage of new and increasing job opportunities

-Aimed at high growth/high demand and economically vital industries

-The foundation of this initiative is partnerships that include the public workforce system, business and industry, education and training providers, and economic development

Community College ActInitiative

  • Budget of $250 million dollars

  • Employer-focused competitive grant program for training in community and technical colleges

  • Combined through the Partnership for Jobs Program

Partnership for Jobs Act

  • Done in order to assist businesses in recruiting, training,and retaining a skilled work force

  • Designed to ensure that large multi-state businesses remain connected to the full range of services through local and state workforce systems

  • Trying to develop national business partnerships

Employment and Training ActAdministration

Demand Driven Incubator Sites:

-Using specific locations to train employees in areas where growth is considered possible


-Working examples of state and local workforce investment that focus on high growth, demand industries

-Model for the public workforce system and its education training partners to develop workforce solutions

-Strategies and approaches to achieve success with the public workforce system to facilitate replication

-Value of leveraging public workforce dollars to implement solutions for local employers and provide career opportunities for local workers

Online Training Programs Act

  • Not feasible for impoverished

  • Just as expensive, if not more expensive than regular programs

  • Lower class don’t have access to computers in most cases

  • People are told to use a public library

Job Training Opportunities Act

  • Application and Fees

    • Michigan Works-NAFTA

  • Program Length

  • Soft and Hard Skills

  • Internships available

  • Job Placement

  • Cost Act

    • $52 per credit  25 credits a year = $1300 per year

    • NAFTA and programs affiliated with the Dislocated Workers Program cover total tuition and book fees

    • KVCC pairs up with Michigan Works to cut-costs for low-income individuals

    Internships Act

    • 8 of the degree programs require an internship to graduate

    • 50 students per year

    • Paid and unpaid available

    • 50-70% retain internship and gain employed at site

    • KVCC administration visits site mid-way through semester

      -Student graded on pass or fail basis

    Strive Act

    “Either Fail or Grow”

    General Info Act

    • Deals with the hardest people to employ

    • Has placed 15,000 people into jobs (1997)

    • First located in New York

    • Funded by corporate and charitable funds

    • Free for attendees

    • Three weeks of intense training

    Education Act

    • Boot camp and group therapy

    • 50% of the people that show up the first day end up completing the three week program

    • Soft skills are the main focus

    Attitude Act

    • It is not the lack of skills that keep these individuals from being successful, but their attitude

    • Many of the unemployed see themselves as victims and the victim attitude is not tolerated there

    Soft Skills Act

    • Do not be late

    • Structure and accountability

    • Appearance and presentation

    • Handshake 101

    • Teamwork

    • Mock job interviews

    Strive success Act

    • 75% of graduates find work after graduating from program

    • 80% still retain jobs 2 years later

    • Strive continues follow up and support for 2 years

    CET Act

    • Core Mission: assist disadvantaged population in gaining access to the job market

    • Target population: farmers, mothers on welfare, out of school youth, past criminals, ESL, etc.

    • Effective Aspects:

      • Motivates student to learn job-specific skills

      • Part of employer recruiting network

    Michigan works Act

    Adult training program:

    Income based (70% of poverty line)

    People receiving cash assistance are obliged to participate (Work First Program)

    Teachers: social workers & teachers

    Common struggles: Acttransportationchild caremaking decisionspunctualityorganizing one‘s own life

    Soft skills: Act

    -social behaviour

    -behaviour at work

    -conflicts @ work

    Hard skills:

    based on the program they participate

    short term

    - goal: to get a job

    Skills training