Chapter 9 opener when a bull elk bugles other males listen
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Chapter 9 Opener: When a bull elk bugles, other males listen. 1. What evolutionary events led to the developemtn of the pseudopenis in the female hyena?. The pseudopenis of the female spotted hyena can be erected. (1) Concentrations of testosterone in male and female spotted hyenas (Part 1).

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1 what evolutionary events led to the developemtn of the pseudopenis in the female hyena l.jpg
1. What evolutionary events led to the developemtn of the pseudopenis in the female hyena?

  • The pseudopenis of the female spotted hyena can be erected




1 a cost of the pseudopenis for female spotted hyenas l.jpg
(1) A cost of the pseudopenis for female spotted hyenas spotted hyenas (Part 2)

  • Length of the birth canal significantly increased. Size of pup determines survival, therefore evolutionary trade off between pup survival and benefits from testosterone induced aggression and dominance rank, ability to reproduce and dominance of pups.




2 describe possible evolutionary pathways for the developmetn of flight in stoneflies l.jpg
2. Describe possible evolutionary pathways for the developmetn of flight in stoneflies.

  • Arthropod gills have evolved into many different structures with different functions (Part 1)


2 arthropod gills have evolved into many different structures with different functions part 2 l.jpg
(2) Arthropod gills have evolved into many different structures with different functions (Part 2)


9 9 evolutionary precursors of insect wings l.jpg
9.9 Evolutionary precursors of insect wings? structures with different functions (Part 2)


9 10 a surface skimming stonefly l.jpg
9.10 A surface-skimming stonefly structures with different functions (Part 2)



3 discuss the evolution of illegitimate signalers vs honest signalers l.jpg
3. Discuss the evolution of illegitimate signalers vs honest signalers.

  • .34 Deep croaks deter rivals – honest signal


9 36 convergent threat displays l.jpg
9.36 Convergent threat displays honest signalers.

  • Honest signal – contest winner gets the female


9 38 an honest signal l.jpg
9.38 An honest signal honest signalers.


9 39 a firefly femme fatale l.jpg
9.39 A firefly honest signalers.femme fatale

  • Illegitimate signal – huge benefits – why did this evolve? Why doesn’t evolution select against this type of behavior?


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