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Vietnam. Background. France colonized Vietnam in 19 th Century Japan occupied Vietnam during WW11 Geneva Accords, 1954, set plan for Vietnam’s future French must be south of line (17 th Parallel) Free and fair elections in two years USA refused to sign Geneva Accords. Conflict Building.

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Background
Background

  • France colonized Vietnam in 19th Century

  • Japan occupied Vietnam during WW11

  • Geneva Accords, 1954, set plan for Vietnam’s future

    • French must be south of line (17th Parallel)

    • Free and fair elections in two years

  • USA refused to sign Geneva Accords


Conflict building
Conflict Building

  • Eisenhower orders CIA to assist in South Vietnamese elections

    • Rigged so Ngo Dinh Diem wins

  • Ho Chi Minh leader of Vietnamese communist part (North Vietnam)

  • Southern Vietnamese who supported Ho Chi Minh were called Vietcong

  • US continued to support France until 1956 when France pulled out all troops

  • US insists keeping South Vietnam free from communism is key to world security


Official conflict
“Official” Conflict?

  • Gulf of Tonkin, 1964

    • USS Maddox on August 2

    • Gulf of Tonkin Incident, August 4

    • Resolution August 7 – US will support any Asian country endangered from communist aggression

    • Allowed US to send massive amounts of troops

  • Operation Rolling Thunder

    • March 1965 – November 1968

    • Continuous bombing, focused on Ho Chi Minh Trail


Reality of war
Reality of War

  • 58,000 US soldiers died

  • Joining early, joining National Guard

  • 25% of US troops drafted

  • Ways to legally avoid draft

    • Conscientious objector

    • student deferments

    • medical

  • Difficult war because:

    • Weather

    • Warfare tactics

    • Lack of support and training

  • Photos


Anti war movement
Anti-War Movement

  • Early 20s, college students

  • Middle/upper class

  • Frustrated with “failure to uphold democratic ideals”

  • Students for a Democratic Society (SDS)

  • Free Speech Movement (FSM)

  • 80% of college campuses had protests

  • Kent State “Massacre” - May 4,1970

    • Invasion of Cambodia April 30th

    • 4 killed, 9 injured


Tet offensive
Tet Offensive

Vietnamese New Year- Jan 30, 1968

Agreement on ceasefire

Attacked 36/44 provincial capitals

Attacked US embassy


1968 election
1968 Election

  • Democratic Convention

    • Protests

    • Failure to pick candidate

    • Humphrey and Wallace both run

  • Republicans pick Nixon

    • Campaigned on bombing HCM Trail

    • Vietnamization


Vietnamization
Vietnamization

  • training South Vietnamese troops to replace US troops

  • reduce US troop number

  • Negative reaction

    • Supporters of war see it as cutting and running

    • Critics see it as continuing war


Wrapping up vietnam
Wrapping up Vietnam

1970 – Repealed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

Last troops returned home 1973


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