The Changing Paradigm - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

The changing paradigm
1 / 24

  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

in. The Changing Paradigm. Forensic. by Dr David Klatzow. Science. Justicia (aka “Lady Justice”). Janós Blaschke,  The Goddess Themis , 1786. Is this what we h ave become?. “The surest way

I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.

Download Presentation

The Changing Paradigm

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript

The changing paradigm


The Changing Paradigm


by Dr David Klatzow


The changing paradigm


(aka “Lady Justice”)

Janós Blaschke, The Goddess Themis, 1786

The changing paradigm

Is this what we

have become?

The changing paradigm

“The surest way

to corrupt a youth is to instruct him to holdin higher ESTEEMthose who think alikethan those who think differently.”

  • FriederichNietzche

The changing paradigm

What is an Expert?

See Davie v Edinburgh Magistrates, 1953

SC 34 of 40 quoted in Phipson on Evidence

13th Edition at 574

The changing paradigm

What is an Expert?

Also Maritime & General Insurance Company v

Sky Unit Engineering

1989 (1) SA 867

The changing paradigm

The Mayfield Print

The changing paradigm

Agent Massey:

  • “I’ll preach fingerprints till I die.

  • They are infallible.”

Chicago Tribune, 17 Oct 2004

The changing paradigm

Bombing Out in Birmingham

The changing paradigm

The Birmingham 6

and the Maguires

  • Frank Skuze

  • The Griess Test

  • Police Confessions?

The changing paradigm

Bullet Identification

  • Bullet Lead ID

  • Striations

    Up to 25% of matching striations

    can be by chance alone

The changing paradigm

Bullet Identification

The changing paradigm

Bullet Identification

The changing paradigm

Bullet Identification

The changing paradigm


Forensic Science

The changing paradigm

Forensic Science

is vulnerable to

contextual and

confirmational bias

I Dror et al Forensic Science International,

2006, 156: 74,77

The changing paradigm

Forensic Science is hindered by:

  • Multiple levels of educational requirements\

  • Different professional cultures within the field

  • Reliance on apprentice-type training and a guild-like structure of each discipline

Strengthening Forensic Science, pg 87

The changing paradigm

Research by Dror

et al has shown that:

…experienced fingerprint examiners

do not necessarily agree with their

own past conclusions when the

examination is presented later in a

different context.

The changing paradigm

Shoe Prints and

Tyre Tracks…

…are largely subjective.

The changing paradigm

National Academies Report Ballistic Imaging:

…observed that validity of fundamental assumptions of uniqueness and reproducibility has not yet been fully demonstrated.

The changing paradigm


  • Gaudette : 1 in 4 500

  • Local less features : 1 in 4 500

The changing paradigm


Many of the rules of thumb used to indicate

accelerant are simply not true.

The changing paradigm

The Statistics:

MJ Saks & JJ Koehler

The changing paradigm

What’s To Be Done?

  • Forensic science should not function in a police and prosecutorial environment

  • State and defence experts should meet to draft a joint expert minute prior to a trial

  • Slugging it out in court should be a thing of the past

  • There is a need for proper academic training of forensic scientists

  • A research culture needs to be fostered.

  • Login