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Ion Channels defined

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KcsA K channel structures

Ionic current moving ions

Question:

How is the internal energy in a system containing a large number of particles (N) distributed among the particles?

Ans.:there will be more particles with low energy (U) than with high

Boltzmann constant

(R/Na )

N

N(U) = A exp -(U/ kbT)

n1

n2

U

U1

U2

E is potential in volts

Force

KcsA K channel structures

Na:K ATPase, a Stoichiometric Transporter

Moves 3Na+ out and 2K+ in per ATP.