1. Chapter 15 Russia and the Republics
2. Land Mass Russia and the Republics occupy 1/6 of the world’s total land mass
3. Northern European Plain Is an extensive lowland area. Which has incredibly rich soil called Chernozem-or Black earth, this soil is abundant on the plain. ¾ of the population lives on this plain.
4. Ural Mountains This separates the Northern European Plains and the Western Siberian plains. It is also the dividing line between Europe and Asia. Some consider Europe and Asia to be one continent called Eurasia
5. Caucasus Mountains Stretch between the black and the Caspian Seas. They form the border between Russia and the Republics of the Transcaucasia (Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan).
6. Central Asia Is the next region east and it includes the Republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan
7. Turan Plain Is a lowland that lies between the Caspian Sea and the mountains. It contains two large deserts the Kara Kum (black sand desert) and the Kyzyl Kum (red sand desert)
8. Black Sea Separates the republic of the Ukraine and the Transcaucasia from Turkey and Eastern Europe
9. Caspian Sea Is really a saltwater lake. It is the largest inland sea in the world. The Aral Sea is also a saltwater lake, it lies east of the Caspian Sea and because of extensive irrigation has caused the Aral Sea to shrink.
10. Lake Baikal Is the deepest freshwater lake in the world. It is more then a mile deep and it holds 20% of the world’s fresh water. This lake is also very clean
11. Siberia This is the part of Russia located in Asia. It has many natural resources but many are located in the frigid arctic and subarctic regions
12. Siberia Business have had some success in getting the natural resources but this has damaged the environment. Especially the mining and the hydroelectric plants. When the hot water from the hydroelectric plants is released into the lakes it damages the plant and animal life. This is known as Thermal Pollution.
13. Climate and Vegetation Chapter 15 Section 1
14. Continentality The effect on the climate of being far from the moderating influence of the sea.
15. Adverse climate conditions Because Siberia is so large there are huge distances from the ocean. It rarely averages of over 50 and can drop to -90 degrees
16. Taiga Largest forest on the earth. Mostly coniferous trees. The Steppe is the fertile grassland.