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Animals. What does it mean to be an animal?. Multicellular Eukaryotic Ingestive Heterotrophs Lacking cell walls Have a mobile stage in their life cycle. Divisions. Vertebrates – with backbone protecting nerve cord Invertebrates (lacking backbones) make up 95% of all animals. Porifera.

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what does it mean to be an animal
What does it mean to be an animal?
  • Multicellular
  • Eukaryotic
  • Ingestive Heterotrophs
  • Lacking cell walls
  • Have a mobile stage in their life cycle
divisions
Divisions
  • Vertebrates– with backbone protecting nerve cord
  • Invertebrates (lacking backbones) make up 95% of all animals

Porifera

essential functions
Essential functions
  • Feeding - all are ingestive heterotrophs
  • Respiration – obtaining oxygen
  • Circulation – movement of materials into and around organisms.
  • Excretion – Getting rid of wastes produced by the organism’s metabolism
  • Response – Responding to events in environment
  • Movement – Sessile (immobile) or mobile

Some have muscles for movement

  • Reproduction – Most by sexual reproduction. As you go up the evolutionary tree, we see a trend from asexual reproduction to sexual reproduction
trends in animal evolution
Trends in Animal Evolution
  • Cell specialization and levels of organization
    • Cells differentiated to serve a particular function
    • Unicellular organisms do not have specialization beyond organelles.
    • Multicellular organisms have structures to serve a particular function
      • Nerve cells, blood cells, epidermal cells
      • Cells, tissues, organs then organ systems
slide6

Body Symmetry

How the body can be divided to get two equal parts

      • Not found in Porifera (Asymmetric)
      • Radial symmetry can be cut in any plane from top to bottom to get two equal parts – Cnidarians
      • Bilateral symmetry – can only be cut in one plane – everything besides Porifera and Cnidarians
slide7

3. Cephalization

Concentration of sensory structures (nerves) towards to anterior (front) region of the animal)

4. Central Nervous System – brain and spinal cord

body views
Body views
  • Anterior – front of animal closest to head
  • Posterior – hind end of animal, what comes last
  • Dorsal – back end or end that faces up
  • Ventral – bottom end or end that is against the ground
slide10

Porifera

Porifera means “pore-bearer”

porifera

Sea sponges

Porifera

“Pore bearing”

interaction with humans
Interaction with humans
  • Extract used to stunt the growth of cancerous tumors
  • Indicators of marine environmental health
  • Original bath sponge came from sea sponges

Stagehorn sponge

cnidaria
Cnidaria

CnidariaStinging celled animals

  • Phylum- Cnidaria
  • Meaning-stinging needle

Jellyfish

Stinging Hydroid

Sea Pen

Fire Coral

Sea Anemones

cnidarians all have radial symmetry
Cnidarians all have radial symmetry

Coral

Sea anemones

Hydra

Jellies

Mushroom Coral

Box Jellies

Pink-Tipped Surf Anemone

Siphonophores

Hydroids

Fire Coral

Sea Pen

Jellyfish

slide16
2 basic forms
    • Tentacles Down = Medusa
    • Tentacles Up = Polyp
  • Reproduce asexually by budding

Relation to Humans

  • Coral – jewelry
  • Global warming/pollution bleaching out coral beds
  • Have biomedical compounds -anti cancer properties
  • Habitats for fish/ snorkeling
nematoda thread round worms

Nematoda“thread”Round worms

Threadworm

Roundworms

Soybean cyst nematode

Porkworm

external and internal structures of nematoda
External and Internal Structures of Nematoda
  • Unsegmented worms
  • Some are parasitic
  • Found in soil & water
  • Have a digestive tract with mouth and anus
  • Obtain oxygen through body wall & diffuse out wastes
  • Simple nervous system w/ ganglia in head running down the length of the body
  • Sexual reproduction but separate sexes.
    • Internal fertilization
slide19
Parasitic nematodes infect humans
    • Pinworm
    • Hookworm
    • Filarial worm
  • Beneficial nematodes help soil
slide20

Platyhelminthes

Platyflat

Helminthesworms.

Therefore: Flatworms

Tapeworm

Planaria

Turbellaria

characteristics
Characteristics
  • Soft, flattened bodies
  • Oxygen & wastes diffuse through skin
  • Mouth with tube-like pharynx for food getting
  • Have a gastrovascular cavity for digestion & absportion
  • Flame cells to filter, remove excess water & metabolic wastes
  • Gangliaanteriorly with twoocelli(eyespots) to detect light.
  • Nerves run down sides
slide22

Mostly sexual as hermaphrodites

Capable of regeneration

tapeworm
Tapeworm
  • Live in intestines of vertebrates
  • Enter host through undercooked or raw meat containing eggs
phylum annelida
Phylum- Annelida
  • Latin root Annellus
    • Meaning little ring
  • Segmented worms:
    • Earthworms
    • Sandworms
    • Leeches
internal and external structures
Internal and External Structures
  • Body divided into segments – separated by septa (walls)
  • Complete digestive tract
    • Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, crop, gizzard, intestines, anus
  • Body wall (epidermis) is thin to allow for gas exchange
    • Kept moist with mucous
  • Closed circulatory system consisting of five aortic arches (hearts) with a dorsal and ventral blood vessel
  • Simple anterior brain & ventral nerve cords

clittelum

slide27
Feeding- pharynx or filter feeding

-soil

-decaying vegetation

  • Reproduction-
    • - Sexually – cross fertilize
    • - Hermaphroditic
    • - Clittelum – thick band that produces mucous ring for eggs
  • Movement-
    • - Setae - paired bristles
    • - Muscles – longitudinal & circular
human interactions
Human Interactions
  • Keep soil aerated
  • Leeches- prevent blood clots
  • Leeches are parasites
soft bodied animals
Soft bodied animals

Mollusca

Gastropods Bivalves Cephalopods

slide30
Have internal (squid) or external shell

Snails, slugs, clams, squid & octopi

Use foot to attach and mucus to slide for movement

In snails and slugs - Radularasping device to abrade the food

Bivalves use a siphon to pull in food with water

Radula

slide31
Some hermaphodites
  • Cephalopods have a jet propulsion system & haveink sacs/glands

Bivalves are filter feeders & clean up water of algae

Use bivalves to monitor water conditions since they filter toxins & pollutants

Jewelry and currency

Excellent food!

arthropods jointed legged animals
ArthropodsJointed Legged animals
  • Jointed appendages
  • Exoskeletons of chitin
  • Segmented bodies (head, thorax, abdomen)
  • Open circulatory systems
  • Insects, spiders, crustaceans, millipeds, centipeds, trilobites
insects

Butterflies, flies, moths, bees, ants, beetles, grasshoppers, dragon flies, …

Body in three parts:

Head, Thorax and Abdomen

6 jointed legs

2 pairs of wings

Compound eye

2 antenna

Insects

reproduction respiration feeding
Reproduction, Respiration & Feeding

Reproduction

- Sexual – separate sexes

- Metamorphosis – complete & incomplete

Incomplete metamorphosis

how insects move and interact with humans
How insects move and interact with humans
  • Pollinate plants
  • Bite or sting humans
  • Spreads diseases
  • Cause major plant damage
  • Honey
echinodermata spiny skinned animals

EchinodermataSpiny skinned animals

Sea Star

Sea cucumber

Sand dollar

Urchin

Sea star eating a clam

slide37

Tube feetunder rays

    • Small hollow tubes
    • Create suction on the end
    • Used for food getting, respiration & movement
    • Connect to Water Vascular System -
slide38

Interaction with humans

  • Used for food (sea cucumber or urchin soup)
  • Used in embryological studies since their embryologic development is like that found in vertebrates. Similar gastrulation
  • Jewelry
  • Wipe out clam beads
  • Major threat to coral reefs – Crown of Thorns sea star

Sea cucumber

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