Animals
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Animals. What does it mean to be an animal?. Multicellular Eukaryotic Ingestive Heterotrophs Lacking cell walls Have a mobile stage in their life cycle. Divisions. Vertebrates – with backbone protecting nerve cord Invertebrates (lacking backbones) make up 95% of all animals. Porifera.

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Animals

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Animals

Animals


What does it mean to be an animal

What does it mean to be an animal?

  • Multicellular

  • Eukaryotic

  • Ingestive Heterotrophs

  • Lacking cell walls

  • Have a mobile stage in their life cycle


Divisions

Divisions

  • Vertebrates– with backbone protecting nerve cord

  • Invertebrates (lacking backbones) make up 95% of all animals

Porifera


Essential functions

Essential functions

  • Feeding - all are ingestive heterotrophs

  • Respiration – obtaining oxygen

  • Circulation – movement of materials into and around organisms.

  • Excretion – Getting rid of wastes produced by the organism’s metabolism

  • Response – Responding to events in environment

  • Movement – Sessile (immobile) or mobile

    Some have muscles for movement

  • Reproduction – Most by sexual reproduction. As you go up the evolutionary tree, we see a trend from asexual reproduction to sexual reproduction


Trends in animal evolution

Trends in Animal Evolution

  • Cell specialization and levels of organization

    • Cells differentiated to serve a particular function

    • Unicellular organisms do not have specialization beyond organelles.

    • Multicellular organisms have structures to serve a particular function

      • Nerve cells, blood cells, epidermal cells

      • Cells, tissues, organs then organ systems


Animals

  • Body Symmetry

    How the body can be divided to get two equal parts

    • Not found in Porifera (Asymmetric)

    • Radial symmetry can be cut in any plane from top to bottom to get two equal parts – Cnidarians

    • Bilateral symmetry – can only be cut in one plane – everything besides Porifera and Cnidarians


Animals

3. Cephalization

Concentration of sensory structures (nerves) towards to anterior (front) region of the animal)

4.Central Nervous System – brain and spinal cord


Body views

Body views

  • Anterior – front of animal closest to head

  • Posterior – hind end of animal, what comes last

  • Dorsal – back end or end that faces up

  • Ventral – bottom end or end that is against the ground


Invertebrates

Invertebrates


Animals

Porifera

Porifera means “pore-bearer”


Porifera

Sea sponges

Porifera

“Pore bearing”


Interaction with humans

Interaction with humans

  • Extract used to stunt the growth of cancerous tumors

  • Indicators of marine environmental health

  • Original bath sponge came from sea sponges

Stagehorn sponge


Cnidaria

Cnidaria

CnidariaStinging celled animals

  • Phylum- Cnidaria

  • Meaning-stinging needle

Jellyfish

Stinging Hydroid

Sea Pen

Fire Coral

Sea Anemones


Cnidarians all have radial symmetry

Cnidarians all have radial symmetry

Coral

Sea anemones

Hydra

Jellies

Mushroom Coral

Box Jellies

Pink-Tipped Surf Anemone

Siphonophores

Hydroids

Fire Coral

Sea Pen

Jellyfish


Animals

2 basic forms

  • Tentacles Down = Medusa

  • Tentacles Up = Polyp

  • Reproduce asexually by budding

    Relation to Humans

  • Coral – jewelry

  • Global warming/pollution bleaching out coral beds

  • Have biomedical compounds -anti cancer properties

  • Habitats for fish/ snorkeling


  • Nematoda thread round worms

    Nematoda“thread”Round worms

    Threadworm

    Roundworms

    Soybean cyst nematode

    Porkworm


    External and internal structures of nematoda

    External and Internal Structures of Nematoda

    • Unsegmented worms

    • Some are parasitic

    • Found in soil & water

    • Have a digestive tract with mouth and anus

    • Obtain oxygen through body wall & diffuse out wastes

    • Simple nervous system w/ ganglia in head running down the length of the body

    • Sexual reproduction but separate sexes.

      • Internal fertilization


    Animals

    • Parasitic nematodes infect humans

      • Pinworm

      • Hookworm

      • Filarial worm

    • Beneficial nematodes help soil


    Animals

    Platyhelminthes

    Platyflat

    Helminthesworms.

    Therefore: Flatworms

    Tapeworm

    Planaria

    Turbellaria


    Characteristics

    Characteristics

    • Soft, flattened bodies

    • Oxygen & wastes diffuse through skin

    • Mouth with tube-like pharynx for food getting

    • Have a gastrovascular cavity for digestion & absportion

    • Flame cells to filter, remove excess water & metabolic wastes

    • Gangliaanteriorly with twoocelli(eyespots) to detect light.

    • Nerves run down sides


    Animals

    Mostly sexual as hermaphrodites

    Capable of regeneration


    Tapeworm

    Tapeworm

    • Live in intestines of vertebrates

    • Enter host through undercooked or raw meat containing eggs


    Animals

    28 ft human tapeworm


    Phylum annelida

    Phylum- Annelida

    • Latin root Annellus

      • Meaning little ring

    • Segmented worms:

      • Earthworms

      • Sandworms

      • Leeches


    Internal and external structures

    Internal and External Structures

    • Body divided into segments – separated by septa (walls)

    • Complete digestive tract

      • Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, crop, gizzard, intestines, anus

    • Body wall (epidermis) is thin to allow for gas exchange

      • Kept moist with mucous

    • Closed circulatory system consisting of five aortic arches (hearts) with a dorsal and ventral blood vessel

    • Simple anterior brain & ventral nerve cords

    clittelum


    Animals

    • Feeding- pharynx or filter feeding

      -soil

      -decaying vegetation

    • Reproduction-

      • - Sexually – cross fertilize

      • - Hermaphroditic

      • - Clittelum – thick band that produces mucous ring for eggs

    • Movement-

      • - Setae - paired bristles

      • - Muscles – longitudinal & circular


    Human interactions

    Human Interactions

    • Keep soil aerated

    • Leeches- prevent blood clots

    • Leeches are parasites


    Soft bodied animals

    Soft bodied animals

    Mollusca

    Gastropods Bivalves Cephalopods


    Animals

    Have internal (squid) or external shell

    Snails, slugs, clams, squid & octopi

    Use foot to attach and mucus to slide for movement

    In snails and slugs - Radularasping device to abrade the food

    Bivalves use a siphon to pull in food with water

    Radula


    Animals

    • Some hermaphodites

    • Cephalopods have a jet propulsion system & haveink sacs/glands

      Bivalves are filter feeders & clean up water of algae

      Use bivalves to monitor water conditions since they filter toxins & pollutants

      Jewelry and currency

      Excellent food!


    Arthropods jointed legged animals

    ArthropodsJointed Legged animals

    • Jointed appendages

    • Exoskeletons of chitin

    • Segmented bodies (head, thorax, abdomen)

    • Open circulatory systems

    • Insects, spiders, crustaceans, millipeds, centipeds, trilobites


    Insects

    Butterflies, flies, moths, bees, ants, beetles, grasshoppers, dragon flies, …

    Body in three parts:

    Head, Thorax and Abdomen

    6 jointed legs

    2 pairs of wings

    Compound eye

    2 antenna

    Insects


    Reproduction respiration feeding

    Reproduction, Respiration & Feeding

    Reproduction

    - Sexual – separate sexes

    - Metamorphosis – complete & incomplete

    Incomplete metamorphosis


    How insects move and interact with humans

    How insects move and interact with humans

    • Pollinate plants

    • Bite or sting humans

    • Spreads diseases

    • Cause major plant damage

    • Honey


    Echinodermata spiny skinned animals

    EchinodermataSpiny skinned animals

    Sea Star

    Sea cucumber

    Sand dollar

    Urchin

    Sea star eating a clam


    Animals

    • Tube feetunder rays

      • Small hollow tubes

      • Create suction on the end

      • Used for food getting, respiration & movement

      • Connect to Water Vascular System -


    Animals

    Interaction with humans

    • Used for food (sea cucumber or urchin soup)

    • Used in embryological studies since their embryologic development is like that found in vertebrates. Similar gastrulation

    • Jewelry

    • Wipe out clam beads

    • Major threat to coral reefs – Crown of Thorns sea star

    Sea cucumber


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