Animals
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Animals. What does it mean to be an animal?. Multicellular Eukaryotic Ingestive Heterotrophs Lacking cell walls Have a mobile stage in their life cycle. Divisions. Vertebrates – with backbone protecting nerve cord Invertebrates (lacking backbones) make up 95% of all animals. Porifera.

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Animals

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Animals


What does it mean to be an animal?

  • Multicellular

  • Eukaryotic

  • Ingestive Heterotrophs

  • Lacking cell walls

  • Have a mobile stage in their life cycle


Divisions

  • Vertebrates– with backbone protecting nerve cord

  • Invertebrates (lacking backbones) make up 95% of all animals

Porifera


Essential functions

  • Feeding - all are ingestive heterotrophs

  • Respiration – obtaining oxygen

  • Circulation – movement of materials into and around organisms.

  • Excretion – Getting rid of wastes produced by the organism’s metabolism

  • Response – Responding to events in environment

  • Movement – Sessile (immobile) or mobile

    Some have muscles for movement

  • Reproduction – Most by sexual reproduction. As you go up the evolutionary tree, we see a trend from asexual reproduction to sexual reproduction


Trends in Animal Evolution

  • Cell specialization and levels of organization

    • Cells differentiated to serve a particular function

    • Unicellular organisms do not have specialization beyond organelles.

    • Multicellular organisms have structures to serve a particular function

      • Nerve cells, blood cells, epidermal cells

      • Cells, tissues, organs then organ systems


  • Body Symmetry

    How the body can be divided to get two equal parts

    • Not found in Porifera (Asymmetric)

    • Radial symmetry can be cut in any plane from top to bottom to get two equal parts – Cnidarians

    • Bilateral symmetry – can only be cut in one plane – everything besides Porifera and Cnidarians


3. Cephalization

Concentration of sensory structures (nerves) towards to anterior (front) region of the animal)

4.Central Nervous System – brain and spinal cord


Body views

  • Anterior – front of animal closest to head

  • Posterior – hind end of animal, what comes last

  • Dorsal – back end or end that faces up

  • Ventral – bottom end or end that is against the ground


Invertebrates


Porifera

Porifera means “pore-bearer”


Sea sponges

Porifera

“Pore bearing”


Interaction with humans

  • Extract used to stunt the growth of cancerous tumors

  • Indicators of marine environmental health

  • Original bath sponge came from sea sponges

Stagehorn sponge


Cnidaria

CnidariaStinging celled animals

  • Phylum- Cnidaria

  • Meaning-stinging needle

Jellyfish

Stinging Hydroid

Sea Pen

Fire Coral

Sea Anemones


Cnidarians all have radial symmetry

Coral

Sea anemones

Hydra

Jellies

Mushroom Coral

Box Jellies

Pink-Tipped Surf Anemone

Siphonophores

Hydroids

Fire Coral

Sea Pen

Jellyfish


2 basic forms

  • Tentacles Down = Medusa

  • Tentacles Up = Polyp

  • Reproduce asexually by budding

    Relation to Humans

  • Coral – jewelry

  • Global warming/pollution bleaching out coral beds

  • Have biomedical compounds -anti cancer properties

  • Habitats for fish/ snorkeling


  • Nematoda“thread”Round worms

    Threadworm

    Roundworms

    Soybean cyst nematode

    Porkworm


    External and Internal Structures of Nematoda

    • Unsegmented worms

    • Some are parasitic

    • Found in soil & water

    • Have a digestive tract with mouth and anus

    • Obtain oxygen through body wall & diffuse out wastes

    • Simple nervous system w/ ganglia in head running down the length of the body

    • Sexual reproduction but separate sexes.

      • Internal fertilization


    • Parasitic nematodes infect humans

      • Pinworm

      • Hookworm

      • Filarial worm

    • Beneficial nematodes help soil


    Platyhelminthes

    Platyflat

    Helminthesworms.

    Therefore: Flatworms

    Tapeworm

    Planaria

    Turbellaria


    Characteristics

    • Soft, flattened bodies

    • Oxygen & wastes diffuse through skin

    • Mouth with tube-like pharynx for food getting

    • Have a gastrovascular cavity for digestion & absportion

    • Flame cells to filter, remove excess water & metabolic wastes

    • Gangliaanteriorly with twoocelli(eyespots) to detect light.

    • Nerves run down sides


    Mostly sexual as hermaphrodites

    Capable of regeneration


    Tapeworm

    • Live in intestines of vertebrates

    • Enter host through undercooked or raw meat containing eggs


    28 ft human tapeworm


    Phylum- Annelida

    • Latin root Annellus

      • Meaning little ring

    • Segmented worms:

      • Earthworms

      • Sandworms

      • Leeches


    Internal and External Structures

    • Body divided into segments – separated by septa (walls)

    • Complete digestive tract

      • Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, crop, gizzard, intestines, anus

    • Body wall (epidermis) is thin to allow for gas exchange

      • Kept moist with mucous

    • Closed circulatory system consisting of five aortic arches (hearts) with a dorsal and ventral blood vessel

    • Simple anterior brain & ventral nerve cords

    clittelum


    • Feeding- pharynx or filter feeding

      -soil

      -decaying vegetation

    • Reproduction-

      • - Sexually – cross fertilize

      • - Hermaphroditic

      • - Clittelum – thick band that produces mucous ring for eggs

    • Movement-

      • - Setae - paired bristles

      • - Muscles – longitudinal & circular


    Human Interactions

    • Keep soil aerated

    • Leeches- prevent blood clots

    • Leeches are parasites


    Soft bodied animals

    Mollusca

    Gastropods Bivalves Cephalopods


    Have internal (squid) or external shell

    Snails, slugs, clams, squid & octopi

    Use foot to attach and mucus to slide for movement

    In snails and slugs - Radularasping device to abrade the food

    Bivalves use a siphon to pull in food with water

    Radula


    • Some hermaphodites

    • Cephalopods have a jet propulsion system & haveink sacs/glands

      Bivalves are filter feeders & clean up water of algae

      Use bivalves to monitor water conditions since they filter toxins & pollutants

      Jewelry and currency

      Excellent food!


    ArthropodsJointed Legged animals

    • Jointed appendages

    • Exoskeletons of chitin

    • Segmented bodies (head, thorax, abdomen)

    • Open circulatory systems

    • Insects, spiders, crustaceans, millipeds, centipeds, trilobites


    Butterflies, flies, moths, bees, ants, beetles, grasshoppers, dragon flies, …

    Body in three parts:

    Head, Thorax and Abdomen

    6 jointed legs

    2 pairs of wings

    Compound eye

    2 antenna

    Insects


    Reproduction, Respiration & Feeding

    Reproduction

    - Sexual – separate sexes

    - Metamorphosis – complete & incomplete

    Incomplete metamorphosis


    How insects move and interact with humans

    • Pollinate plants

    • Bite or sting humans

    • Spreads diseases

    • Cause major plant damage

    • Honey


    EchinodermataSpiny skinned animals

    Sea Star

    Sea cucumber

    Sand dollar

    Urchin

    Sea star eating a clam


    • Tube feetunder rays

      • Small hollow tubes

      • Create suction on the end

      • Used for food getting, respiration & movement

      • Connect to Water Vascular System -


    Interaction with humans

    • Used for food (sea cucumber or urchin soup)

    • Used in embryological studies since their embryologic development is like that found in vertebrates. Similar gastrulation

    • Jewelry

    • Wipe out clam beads

    • Major threat to coral reefs – Crown of Thorns sea star

    Sea cucumber


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