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Animals. What does it mean to be an animal?. Multicellular Eukaryotic Ingestive Heterotrophs Lacking cell walls Have a mobile stage in their life cycle. Divisions. Vertebrates – with backbone protecting nerve cord Invertebrates (lacking backbones) make up 95% of all animals. Porifera.

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what does it mean to be an animal
What does it mean to be an animal?
  • Multicellular
  • Eukaryotic
  • Ingestive Heterotrophs
  • Lacking cell walls
  • Have a mobile stage in their life cycle
  • Vertebrates– with backbone protecting nerve cord
  • Invertebrates (lacking backbones) make up 95% of all animals


essential functions
Essential functions
  • Feeding - all are ingestive heterotrophs
  • Respiration – obtaining oxygen
  • Circulation – movement of materials into and around organisms.
  • Excretion – Getting rid of wastes produced by the organism’s metabolism
  • Response – Responding to events in environment
  • Movement – Sessile (immobile) or mobile

Some have muscles for movement

  • Reproduction – Most by sexual reproduction. As you go up the evolutionary tree, we see a trend from asexual reproduction to sexual reproduction
trends in animal evolution
Trends in Animal Evolution
  • Cell specialization and levels of organization
    • Cells differentiated to serve a particular function
    • Unicellular organisms do not have specialization beyond organelles.
    • Multicellular organisms have structures to serve a particular function
      • Nerve cells, blood cells, epidermal cells
      • Cells, tissues, organs then organ systems

Body Symmetry

How the body can be divided to get two equal parts

      • Not found in Porifera (Asymmetric)
      • Radial symmetry can be cut in any plane from top to bottom to get two equal parts – Cnidarians
      • Bilateral symmetry – can only be cut in one plane – everything besides Porifera and Cnidarians

3. Cephalization

Concentration of sensory structures (nerves) towards to anterior (front) region of the animal)

4. Central Nervous System – brain and spinal cord

body views
Body views
  • Anterior – front of animal closest to head
  • Posterior – hind end of animal, what comes last
  • Dorsal – back end or end that faces up
  • Ventral – bottom end or end that is against the ground


Porifera means “pore-bearer”


Sea sponges


“Pore bearing”

interaction with humans
Interaction with humans
  • Extract used to stunt the growth of cancerous tumors
  • Indicators of marine environmental health
  • Original bath sponge came from sea sponges

Stagehorn sponge


CnidariaStinging celled animals

  • Phylum- Cnidaria
  • Meaning-stinging needle


Stinging Hydroid

Sea Pen

Fire Coral

Sea Anemones

cnidarians all have radial symmetry
Cnidarians all have radial symmetry


Sea anemones



Mushroom Coral

Box Jellies

Pink-Tipped Surf Anemone



Fire Coral

Sea Pen


2 basic forms
    • Tentacles Down = Medusa
    • Tentacles Up = Polyp
  • Reproduce asexually by budding

Relation to Humans

  • Coral – jewelry
  • Global warming/pollution bleaching out coral beds
  • Have biomedical compounds -anti cancer properties
  • Habitats for fish/ snorkeling
nematoda thread round worms

Nematoda“thread”Round worms



Soybean cyst nematode


external and internal structures of nematoda
External and Internal Structures of Nematoda
  • Unsegmented worms
  • Some are parasitic
  • Found in soil & water
  • Have a digestive tract with mouth and anus
  • Obtain oxygen through body wall & diffuse out wastes
  • Simple nervous system w/ ganglia in head running down the length of the body
  • Sexual reproduction but separate sexes.
    • Internal fertilization
Parasitic nematodes infect humans
    • Pinworm
    • Hookworm
    • Filarial worm
  • Beneficial nematodes help soil




Therefore: Flatworms




  • Soft, flattened bodies
  • Oxygen & wastes diffuse through skin
  • Mouth with tube-like pharynx for food getting
  • Have a gastrovascular cavity for digestion & absportion
  • Flame cells to filter, remove excess water & metabolic wastes
  • Gangliaanteriorly with twoocelli(eyespots) to detect light.
  • Nerves run down sides

Mostly sexual as hermaphrodites

Capable of regeneration

  • Live in intestines of vertebrates
  • Enter host through undercooked or raw meat containing eggs
phylum annelida
Phylum- Annelida
  • Latin root Annellus
    • Meaning little ring
  • Segmented worms:
    • Earthworms
    • Sandworms
    • Leeches
internal and external structures
Internal and External Structures
  • Body divided into segments – separated by septa (walls)
  • Complete digestive tract
    • Mouth, pharynx, esophagus, crop, gizzard, intestines, anus
  • Body wall (epidermis) is thin to allow for gas exchange
    • Kept moist with mucous
  • Closed circulatory system consisting of five aortic arches (hearts) with a dorsal and ventral blood vessel
  • Simple anterior brain & ventral nerve cords


Feeding- pharynx or filter feeding


-decaying vegetation

  • Reproduction-
    • - Sexually – cross fertilize
    • - Hermaphroditic
    • - Clittelum – thick band that produces mucous ring for eggs
  • Movement-
    • - Setae - paired bristles
    • - Muscles – longitudinal & circular
human interactions
Human Interactions
  • Keep soil aerated
  • Leeches- prevent blood clots
  • Leeches are parasites
soft bodied animals
Soft bodied animals


Gastropods Bivalves Cephalopods

Have internal (squid) or external shell

Snails, slugs, clams, squid & octopi

Use foot to attach and mucus to slide for movement

In snails and slugs - Radularasping device to abrade the food

Bivalves use a siphon to pull in food with water


Some hermaphodites
  • Cephalopods have a jet propulsion system & haveink sacs/glands

Bivalves are filter feeders & clean up water of algae

Use bivalves to monitor water conditions since they filter toxins & pollutants

Jewelry and currency

Excellent food!

arthropods jointed legged animals
ArthropodsJointed Legged animals
  • Jointed appendages
  • Exoskeletons of chitin
  • Segmented bodies (head, thorax, abdomen)
  • Open circulatory systems
  • Insects, spiders, crustaceans, millipeds, centipeds, trilobites

Butterflies, flies, moths, bees, ants, beetles, grasshoppers, dragon flies, …

Body in three parts:

Head, Thorax and Abdomen

6 jointed legs

2 pairs of wings

Compound eye

2 antenna


reproduction respiration feeding
Reproduction, Respiration & Feeding


- Sexual – separate sexes

- Metamorphosis – complete & incomplete

Incomplete metamorphosis

how insects move and interact with humans
How insects move and interact with humans
  • Pollinate plants
  • Bite or sting humans
  • Spreads diseases
  • Cause major plant damage
  • Honey
echinodermata spiny skinned animals

EchinodermataSpiny skinned animals

Sea Star

Sea cucumber

Sand dollar


Sea star eating a clam


Tube feetunder rays

    • Small hollow tubes
    • Create suction on the end
    • Used for food getting, respiration & movement
    • Connect to Water Vascular System -

Interaction with humans

  • Used for food (sea cucumber or urchin soup)
  • Used in embryological studies since their embryologic development is like that found in vertebrates. Similar gastrulation
  • Jewelry
  • Wipe out clam beads
  • Major threat to coral reefs – Crown of Thorns sea star

Sea cucumber