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ANIMALS. Chapters 25 and 26. Chapter 25.1 and 25.2. Objectives List the characteristics that all animals share. Differentiate between invertebrates and chordates. Describe some features of animal body plans. Characteristics of Animals. Heterotrophic Multi-cellular Eukaryotic

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ANIMALS

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ANIMALS

Chapters 25 and 26


Chapter 25.1 and 25.2

  • Objectives

    • List the characteristics that all animals share.

    • Differentiate between invertebrates and chordates.

    • Describe some features of animal body plans.


Characteristics of Animals

  • Heterotrophic

  • Multi-cellular

  • Eukaryotic

  • No cell walls


Types of Animals

  • Invertebrates – 95% of animals

    • Lack a backbone

    • Examples:

Jellyfish

Seastar

Worm

Insect


Types of Animals

  • Chordates – 5% of animals

    • Characteristics:

      • Dorsal, hollow nerve chord

      • Notochord

        • Long supporting rod running length of body

      • Tail extending past anus

      • Pharyngeal pouches

        • Paired structures in throat region

    • Most are vertebrates (animals with backbones)

      • Examples: fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals


Check-in

  • List the characteristics all animals have

    • Multicellular, heterotrophs, eukaryotes, no cell walls

  • What characteristic do all invertebrates share?

    • No backbone

  • What characteristics do all chordates have sometime in their life cycle?

    • Hollow nerve cord, notochord, postanal tail, pharyngeal pouches


Levels of Organization

  • Cells

  • Tissues

  • Organs

  • Organ systems

  • Organism


Types of Body Symmetry

  • Asymmetry – no symmetry

  • Radial symmetry – body parts extend from central point

  • Bilateral symmetry – two sides (mirror image)

    • Anterior – front

    • Posterior – back

    • Dorsal – upper

    • Ventral - lower


Differentiation of Germ Layers

  • Cells of most animal embryos differentiate into:

    • Endoderm – innermost layer

    • Mesoderm – middle layer

    • Ectoderm – outermost layer


Formation of a Body Cavity

  • Body cavity – fluid filled space between digestive tract and body wall

    • Acoelomate – no body cavity

    • Pseudocoelomate – body cavity partially lined with mesoderm

    • Coelomate – body cavity lined with mesoderm


Embryological Development

  • Zygote – fertilized egg

  • Develops into blastula (hollow ball of cells)

  • Blastopore – single opening to outside formed as blastula folds inward

  • Protostome –organism in which blastopore becomes mouth

  • Deuterostome –blastopore becomes anus


Check-in

  • List the levels of organization

    • Cells  Tissues  Organs  Organ systems  Organisms

  • What type of symmetry do each of the following have?

Radial

Bilateral

Asymmetry

Radial


Check-in

Identify the sides of the animal that are labeled:

dorsal

ventral

posterior

anterior


Check-in

  • What germ layer is the outermost layer?

    • Ectoderm

  • What germ layer makes up the linings of the digestive tract and respiratory system?

    • Endoderm

  • If an organism has a body cavity partially lined with mesoderm, what is it called?

    • Pseudocoelomate


Check-in

  • What is a fertilized egg called?

    • Zygote

  • Organism in which blastopore becomes anus:

    • Deuterostome

  • What is an organism with a body cavity partially lined with mesoderm called?

    • Pseudocoelomate


Chapter 26.1

  • Objectives

    • Describe characteristics of invertebrate phyla.


Cladogram of Nonchordate Invertebrates


Phylum Porifera

  • “Pore-bearer”

  • Ex. Sponges

  • No tissues or organ systems

  • Asymmetrical

  • Filter feeders


Phylum Cnidaria

  • “Nettle” or “Stinger”

  • Ex. Hydras, Jellyfish, Sea anemones, Corals

  • Cells organized into tissues

  • Radial symmetry

  • Feed by stinging prey with nematocysts, mouth gastrovascular cavity


Phylum Arthropoda

  • Arthropods- “Jointed foot”

  • Ex. Insects, crustaceans, spiders

  • Segmented body, exoskeleton of chitin, jointed appendages


Nematoda - Roundworms

  • Ex. pinworms

  • Bilateral symmetry

  • Tissue layers

  • Pseudocoelomate

  • Digestive system with mouth and anus

  • Molt (shed skin) as they grow


Platyhelminthes - Flatworms

  • Ex. planarians, flukes, tapeworms

  • Bilateral symmetry

  • Three tissue layers

  • Acoelomate


Annelida – Segmented worms

  • Ex. earthworms, leeches, bristleworms

  • Bilateral symmetry

  • Tissue layers

  • Coelomate


Annelida Systems

  • Digestion- mouth and anus, pharynx

  • Circulation- closed system (blood contained in vessels)

  • Respiration- some gills, skin

  • Excretion- Nephridia, anus

  • Nervous- brain and nerve cords

  • Reproduction-

    • Sexual: (most), separate sexes, hermaphrodites


Phylum Mollusca

  • Mollusks

  • Ex. Gastropods (snails), Bivalves (clams), Cephalopods (squid)

  • Internal or external shell

  • Bilateral symmetry

  • Tissue layers

  • Coelomate


Phylum Echinodermata

  • Echinoderms- “Spiny skin”

  • Ex. Sea Stars, Sea Urchins, Sand Dollars

  • Internal skeleton

  • Water vascular system (tube feet)

  • Radial symmetry


Chapter 26.2

  • Objectives

    • Describe characteristics of chordate phyla.


Cladogram of Chordates


Nonvertebrate Chordates

  • Two invertebrate

    • Urochordata: tunicates

  • Cephalochordata: lancelets

subphyla:


Jawless Fishes

  • No true jaws or teeth

  • Lack vertebrae

  • Skeleton made of cartilage

  • Ex. Lampreys, hagfish


Cartilaginous Fish

  • Skeleton made of cartilage

  • Paired fins

  • Most have tooth-like scales

  • Ex. Sharks, rays, skates


Bony Fish

  • Skeleton of true bone

  • Paired fins, scales, gills

  • Swim bladder

  • Ex. Perch, bass, flounder


Amphibians

  • Means “double life”

    • Young: live in water and breathe with gills

    • Adult: live on land and breathe with lungs and skin

  • Undergo metamorphosis

    • Dramatic change in body form

  • Moist skin with mucous glands

  • Lack scales and claws

  • Ex. Frogs, toads, newts, salamanders


Amphibian Systems

  • Digestive/Excretory:

    • Developed: stomach, intestines, etc.

  • Nervous:

    • Developed: large eyesgreat sight

  • Circulatory:

    • Closed circulatory system

    • Three chamber heart

  • Reproductive:

    • Most lay eggs without shells in water

    • External Fertilization

  • Respiratory:

    • Gills when immature, lungs and skin when mature (skin must stay moist to function)


Reptiles

  • Vertebrates with lungs

  • Scaly skin

  • Leathery shelled amniotic eggs

  • Ex. Lizards, snakes, turtles, crocodiles, dinosaurs


Birds

  • Warm-blooded

  • Feathers

  • Strong light-weight bones

  • Hard-shelled amniotic eggs

  • Two scaly legs and wings as fore-limbs

  • Ex. Hawk, eagle, penguin, ostrich, hummingbird, robin


Mammals

  • Warm-blooded

  • Feed young with milk from mammary glands

  • Hair or fur

  • Breathe air

  • Four-chamber heart

  • Many groups of mammals-

    • Insect-eating, Water-dwelling, Hoofed, Gnawing, etc.


Groups of Mammals

  • Monotremes

    • Egg-laying mammals

    • Ex. Platypus

  • Marsupials

    • Give birth to under-developed young

    • Young develop in the pouch of the mother

    • Ex. Kangaroo, koalas, possum

  • Placental mammals:

    • Give birth to young that have developed in the mother’s body

    • Ex. Humans, Dogs, Mice


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