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Feed Nutrients. Animal Science II Unit 6. Objectives. Identify the major functions of the basic nutrient groups and identify the feeds that are sources of each. Identify the characteristics of nutrient sources for each basic nutrient group. Nutrients.

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Feed nutrients

Feed Nutrients

Animal Science IIUnit 6


Objectives
Objectives

  • Identify the major functions of the basic nutrient groups and identify the feeds that are sources of each.

  • Identify the characteristics of nutrient sources for each basic nutrient group.


Nutrients
Nutrients

  • A chemical element or compound that aids in the support of life.

  • Become part of the cells of the body

  • Necessary for life, growth and proper function

  • Different kinds needed by different animals

  • Must be in balance


5 groups of nutrients
5 Groups of Nutrients

  • Energy

  • Proteins

  • Vitamins

  • Minerals

  • water


Energy carbohydrates
Energy-Carbohydrates

  • Main energy nutrient in animal rations

  • Made up of sugars, starches, cellulose and lignin

  • Chemically composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen

  • Provide energy for body cells

  • Extra carbs are stored in the body as fat


Simple carbohydrates
Simple Carbohydrates

  • Sugars and starches

  • Easily digested

  • Nitrogen-free extract (NFE)

    • Comes from cereal grains


Complex carbohydrates
Complex Carbohydrates

  • Fiber

  • Made up of cellulose and lignin

  • Harder to digest

  • Found mainly in roughages


Energy nutrients
Energy Nutrients

  • Fats and oils

  • Higher energy value than carbohydrates

    • Fats have 2.25 times the energy value

  • Easily digested

  • Provide energy and body heat and carry the fat soluble vitamins

  • Come from both plant and animal sources


Proteins
Proteins

  • Organic compounds made up of amino acids

  • Supply material to build body tissue

  • Essential to fetal development

  • Table 6-1 (p. 129) shows the essential and nonessential amino acids


Sources of protein
Sources of Protein

Animal Protein

Plant Protein

  • Good quality

  • Meat & Bone meal

  • Can not be fed to ruminant animals

  • Poorer quality

  • Will meet ruminant needs

  • Cereal grains in the right combination will meet the needs of nonruminants

  • Soybean oil meal is most commonly used


Vitamins
Vitamins

  • Trace organic compounds

  • Only needed in small amounts

  • Divided into 2 groups

    • Fat soluble and water soluble


Vitamins1
Vitamins

Fat Soluble

Water Solvable

  • Dissolve in fat

  • A, D, E, K

  • Sources

    • Green leafy hay

    • Yellow corn

    • Cod liver & other fish oils

    • Wheat germ oil

    • Green pasture

    • Vitamin D is produced in the animals body if the animal receives direct sunlight part of the day

  • Dissolve in water

  • Vitamin C & B-Complex vitamins

  • Sources

    • Green pasture (C & B)

    • Hay (C)

    • Green leafy hay (B)

    • Cereal grains (B)

    • Milk (B)

    • Fish soluble (B)

    • Certain animal proteins (B)


Minerals
Minerals

  • Inorganic materials

  • Needed in small amounts

  • Divided into two groups

    • Major-needed in large amounts

    • Trace- needed in small amounts

      • May be deficient in some part of the US

      • See table 6-2 p. 132


Minerals1
Minerals

Major Minerals

Trace Minerals

  • Often found lacking

    • Salt

    • Calcium

    • Phosphorus

  • Usually found in adequate amounts

  • Potassium, Sulfur, Magnesium, Iron, Iodine, Copper, Cobalt, Zinc, Manganese, Boron, Molybdenum, Fluorine,selenium


Water
Water

  • Importance is often forgotten

  • 40-80% of the animals body

  • Functions

    • Dissolves nutrients

    • Controls temperature

    • Carries nutrients

    • Necessary for chemical reactions


Commercial feed tag
Commercial Feed Tag

  • Show the guaranteed minimum of

    • Crude protein or total protein

      • Amount of ammoniacal nitrogen in the feed multiplied by 6.25

    • Vitamins

    • Minerals


Summary
Summary

  • Nutrients are chemical elements or compounds that aid in the support of life

  • Need all 5 groups to produce efficiently

  • Supplied by grains, forages and commercial feed mixes


Assignment
Assignment

  • Complete discussion questions 1-22


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