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English & Communications for College. (Part II). Brief Contents. Chapter 7 Technical Communication Chapter 8 Developing and Using Graphic and Visual Aids Chapter 9 Communicating with Customers Chapter 10 Nonverbal Communication Chapter 11 Presentations and Meetings

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Brief contents
Brief Contents

  • Chapter 7 Technical Communication

  • Chapter 8 Developing and Using Graphic and Visual Aids

  • Chapter 9 Communicating with Customers

  • Chapter 10 Nonverbal Communication

  • Chapter 11 Presentations and Meetings

  • Chapter 12 Getting Your Job

Chapter 7 technical communication
Chapter 7 Technical Communication

  • 7.1 writing to instruct

  • 7.2 writing to describe

  • 7.3 writing to persuade

7 1 writing to instruct
7.1 writing to instruct

  • Objectives:

  • 1. list the components of effective instructions

  • 2. describe how to write effective steps for instructions

  • 3. describe how a manual is similar to and different from instructions

  • 4. describe how to make information in a manual easy to locate

The purpose of instructions and manuals
The purpose of instructions and manuals

  • Instructions tell readers how to do something.

  • Manuals are sets of instructions combined with explanations, descriptions, definitions, and other related information.

  • Both instructions and manuals should provide all the guidance readers need in order to carry out the tasks.

Components of effective instructions
Components of Effective Instructions

  • Four components:

    1. A clear and limiting title

    2.An introduction and a list of needed tools or materials

    3.Numbered steps in sequential order

    4.A conclusion

Clear and limiting title
Clear and limiting Title

  • The title should explain what the reader will do with the topic, limiting, specific enough for readers to know what it does and does not cover

  • Unclear and too broad: the ABC Modem

  • Clear and limiting: how to install the ABC Modem

Introduction and list of needed tools or materials
Introduction and list of needed tools or materials

  • The introduction should explain:

  • 1.what the instructions should accomplish

  • 2.who should follow the instructions

  • 3.when and why to follow the instructions

  • List of needed tools or materials include:

  • 1.special skills or knowledge required

  • 2.time frame

  • 3. cautions

  • 4.definitions

Numbered steps in sequential order and conclusion
Numbered steps in sequential order and conclusion

  • Provide everything readers need , without overwhelming them with details or unneeded information

  • Conclusion describe the expected results in the last sentence or summarized the major steps.

Guideline for writing effective steps
Guideline for Writing Effective Steps

  • Number each step and start it with a verb.

  • Put the steps in sequential order

  • Describe each step separately so readers will not overlook a step

  • Indent any explanations under the appropriate step

  • If a step should be carried out only under certain conditions, describe the conditions first.

  • If you have many steps or several pocedure, group them under subheadings


  • Single-space the information within a step,double-space between steps.

  • Include diagrams or other graphics whenever they will clarify the instructions

  • Highlight warnings and cautions so readers do not overlook them

  • Create a clear , inviting format by using number, letters , indentation, boldface, and lots of white space.

  • As part of the revision process, ask someone to try following your instructions

Writing effective manuals
Writing Effective Manuals

  • Provide how a machine works and how use , maintain , and repair it.

  • Have a clear title and be well organized , clearly written , and appropriate for the intended readers.

  • Be divided into sections or chapters, one for each main procedure or process.

  • May have a glossary , a list of unfamiliar terms, abbreviations, or acronyms.

  • Might include an appendix , a collection of supplemental material at the end of the manual.

Writing effective manuals1
Writing Effective Manuals

  • Making Information Accessible in Manuals

    1.Detailed table of contents


    3.Tabs or dividers

    4.Graphics and diagrams

    5.Modifications for different experience levels

7 2 writing to describe
7.2 Writing to Describe

  • Objectives:

  • 1. explain how a process description differs from a set of instruction

  • 2.describe the components of objects and mechanism descriptions.

  • 3. explain how to write a description of an object or a mechanism

  • 4. list the components of a process description

Types of description writing
Types of description Writing

  • A description is a verbal and visual picture of something.

    1.Object description.P.10

    2. Mechanism description. P.10

    3. Process description.P10

    Form description: one paragraph explanation

    Informal description: introduction, body , and conclusion.

Components of a formal object or mechanism description
Components of a Formal Object or Mechanism Description

  • 1.a clear and limiting title

  • 2. an introduction and overview

  • 3. a part-by-part description

  • 4. a conclusion

Guidelines for writing object and mechanism description
Guidelines for Writing Object and Mechanism Description

  • Describe the object or part by it shape, dimensions, size ,color, texture, position, and/ or material

  • For most of your descriptions, be objective.

  • Be specific and precise, avoiding vague or general terms

  • Compare the unfamiliar to the familiar

Writing a process description
Writing a Process Description

  • Components of a process description

  • Clear and limiting title

  • Introduction

  • Step-by-step description

  • conclusion

7 3 writing to persuade
7.3 Writing to Persuade

  • Objectives:

    1.Plan a persuasive letter

    2.Organize a persuasive letter

    3. Organize a sales letter and a collection letter.

    4. Plan and organize a propsal

The purpose of persuasive writing
The purpose of Persuasive Writing

  • A lot of things to be persuaded to be done: to work overtime on a special project, to use a new form, to place orders, to pay the bill, etc.

  • Most persuasive letters occurs in memos, letters and proposals.

Planning a persuasive letter
Planning a persuasive letter

  • Identify the objective

  • Identify the main idea

  • Determine the supporting information

  • Adjust the content to the reader

Organizing a persuasive letter
Organizing a persuasive letter

  • Persuasive letter are organized in indirect order—describe the need convincingly before making your request

  • Steps:

  • Gain the reader’s attention

  • Show the reader that he or she has a need

  • Explain your solution to that need—your requst

  • Present the supporting information

  • End by asking for s specific action

Writing different kinds of persuasive messages
Writing Different Kinds of Persuasive Messages

  • Sales letters—persuade the potential customers to purchase a product or service.

  • Collection letters—persuade a customer to pay a past-due bill.

Four stages of collection letter
Four stages of collection letter

  • 1) the reminder stage—assumes has simply forgotten to make a payment, in a direct order.

  • ,2) the strong reminder—sent when no response to the first reminder, direct and firm.

  • 3) the discussion stage---to obtain the full payment , partial payment as temporary measure, or an explanation of why the customer has not made the appropriate payment, indirect way

  • 4) the urgency stage—to obtain payment and advise the customer of the consequence if payment is not made immediately, direct and the tone is firm.

Writing proposals
Writing Proposals

  • A proposal is a formal report that describes a problem and recommends a solution.

  • when you write a proposal , you suggest or propose a practical way to meet the reader’s need.

  • Two kinds: solicited proposal—to ask for proposals to meet an identified need; unsolicited proposal—the receiver has not asked for this type of proposal.

Writing proposals1
Writing Proposals

  • Planning a proposal—what is most likely to motivate this receiver to accept this proposal?

  • Organizing a proposal –contain ten elements: introduction, background, need, scope of project ,action of project, schedule, cost, qualification, call for action, supporting information

  • Formatting a proposal: follow the RFP closely in solicited proposal; and use subheadings to make the document inviting to read and easy to skim in unsolicited proposal.