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Leadership. Leadership refers the ability to influence and direct people to go in a particular direction to achieve the objectives of the firm. Leadership involves. Directing people Personality&charisma –the individuals personality and charm to inspire enthusiasm among the audience.

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Leadership refers the ability to influence and direct people to go in a particular direction to achieve the objectives of the firm.

Leadership involves

Leadership involves

  • Directing people

  • Personality&charisma –the individuals personality and charm to inspire enthusiasm among the audience.

  • Setting an example

  • Delegating



Mgr had more time

Less stress/risk of work overload

Subordinates gain experience and more job satisfaction

Work get done faster


Subordinates may not be able to do the work/make decisions

Mgrs fear subordinates may do a better job and may undermine the managers status, control and power.


Types of leaders 1 autocratic leaders

Types of Leaders1. Autocratic Leaders

  • These leaders like to be in control. They do not share authority with subordinates but prefer to make all decisions themselves.

  • They have little trust or confidence in the ability of other staff and are unwilling to delegate power. They tend to ignore the views of others.

  • In some instances they may resort to intimidation & fear to persuade others.

Advantages and disadvantages

Work gets done

Decisions are made quickly

Suits org’ns where discipline is important ie) The Army.

Useful in crisis situations,

Valuable opinions are not listened to.

Mgmt may become overloaded with work.

Subordinates may feel frustrated & demotivated

May cause industrial relations disputes.

Advantages and Disadvantages

2 democratic leadership

2. Democratic Leadership

  • These leaders are willing to share authority and decision making with staff. They have trust and confidence in the staff and delegate power and responsibility where necessary.

  • They make decisions only after consultation with others and prefer to persuade others through the use of reasonable argument.

Advantages and disadvantages1

Subordinates feel valued and are motivated and become loyal to the firm.

Delegation encourages initiative & intrepreneurship

Increased levels of trust maintains good industrial relations.

Slower decision making

Quality of decisions may decline as so many opinions and views taken into account.

Advantages and Disadvantages

3 laissez faire leadership

3. Laissez faire Leadership

  • Also known as free rein or spectator style, involves giving staff general goals and targets to aim for and then giving them the authority to achieve these in whatever way they think best.

  • They have considerable trust in staff. They delegate power & responsibility freely to staff and are content to let subordinates to make most of the decisions. Only very important issues are dealt with by the manager.

  • They are willing to listen to the opinions of others before making decisions.

  • Suitable to artistic and research work.

Advantages and disadvantages2

Faster and better decisions are made by subordinate who is closest to issue

Delegating responsibility & authority considerably challenges and motivates


Initiative and intrapreneuership are strongly encouraged

Inexperienced/untrained staff may not be equipped to handle the responsibility

Lack of supervision and control may result in poor decisions being made

Advantages and disadvantages

Importance of effective leadership

Importance of effective leadership

  • Improved efficency (2)-a good leader gives clear instruction and direction to employees. E’ees understand and do exactly what is expected of them. Time and other resources are not wasted.(3)

  • Improved co-ordination(2)-an effective leader inspires e’ees to share his vision for the future of the business, and they all pull together in the same direction to achieve it.(3)

  • Employee retention(2)-a good leader delegates tasks and e’ees like being trusted&involved in the business and are thus more likey to continue working for the business. This also help to attract best e’ees.(3)

  • Adapt to Change(2)-a good leader helps a business to change for the better. He acts as a role model for e’ees by putting in the effort needed to make the change happen. This encourages e’ees to accept the change aswell. (3)



  • This is the ability to get people to work hard and to contribute their best effort, in order to achieve the objectives of the firm.

  • It helps a manager to achieve the business goals by making every employee willingly play their part in achieving the goals.

  • By understand the forces that motivate people,managers can create the conditions that will encourage everyone to work harder &contribute their best to achieve the goals.

  • Two theories of motivation

1 maslow s hierarchy of needs

1. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

Maslows theory of motivation

Maslows Theory of Motivation

  • Known as the hierarchy of needs

  • ‘Maslows hierarchy of needs’ says that all human needs can be arranged in a hierarchy in order of importance.See diagram

  • Our needs begin with the most basic physical needs for food and shelter and lead right up to the most complex psychological needs for self esteem and self actualisation.

  • Everyone starts at the bottom with physiological needs. That need is the most important to a person until it is satisfied. Eg. A person who is literally starving may steal food. He is not concerned with what his friends might think of him(esteem needs) b/c he is stuck on physiological needs.



  • Once a need is satisfied, it no longer motivates a person. Satisfying the next need up is now what motivates her. Employees are always motivated to move to the next level.

  • Therefore, it is important for a manager to know which need is dominating each employee/current level. They can be motivated to work harder if the manager satisfy that need.

Mcgregor s theory of motivation

McGregor’s Theory of Motivation

  • Studied what managers believe about their workers.

  • Research showed him that managers could be grouped according to their attitude to motivating staff.

  • 2 types of Managers

  • Theory X and Theory Y Managers

Theory x managers believe employees

Theory X Managers believe employees

  • Dislike work, are lazy and are only motivated by money and will avoid work where possible.

  • Have no ambition or desire to take part in workplace decision making and must be given orders by a tough decisive boss

  • Dislike change and will always resist it

Result theory x managers believe that they should

Result : Theory X managers believe that they should

  • Only offer financial incentives and material rewards to get work done.

  • Closely supervise staff to ensure they do the work

  • Avoid consulting with staff when deciding what work is to be done and how.

  • Threaten staff with sanctions such as loss of bonuses, unpleasent duties, suspension and dismissal to ensure full co operation.

Theory x

Theory X

  • Is also called the traditional “controller” style of management. They tend to behave in a autocratic manner, distrust their staff and try to control them as much as possible. In turn their staff will probable resent this approach, become uncooperative and try to do ad little work as they can get away with.

Implications of this style

Implications of this style

  • Conflict - as the manager has total control over the workers, does not consult workers in decision making and threaten workers this can cause conflicts between management and staff which can lead to industrial relations disputes.

  • Low morale – because workers are closely supervises and not involve in decisions or delegated any tasks they do not feel valued and therefore they have low morale.


Implications …

  • Work overload for manager – because the manager believes the workers dislike work and do not have any desire or ambition to take part in decisions the manager do not delegate any tasks and therefore become overloaded with work.

  • Lack of intrapreneurship(2) – b/c the manager delegates little authority/does not trust employees and they are not asked about their ideas or opinions they are less likely to use their own initiative (3)

Implications continued

Implications continued

  • Fewer opportunities for promotion

  • Lower productivity

  • Lower quality

Theory y managers believe workers

Theory Y Managers believe workers

  • Can enjoy work and can be trusted to work hard and behave responsible as long as their job is interesting and challenging.

  • Have ambition, imagination and intelligence if they are encouraged.

  • Are open to change if they are consulted and fully involved in deciding how the work should be done.

Result theory y managers believe that they should

Result: Theory Y Managers believe that they should

  • Provide interesting and challenging work that staff will find stimulating

  • Provide staff with the freedom and autonomy to get on with the job with unnecessary interference.

  • Consult regularly with staff about what work is to be done and the best way to do it.

  • Provide plenty of encouragement and praise for work well done.

Theory y

Theory Y

  • Is also called “facilitator” manager b/c they facilitate/allow staff to get on with the work in the way they think best.

  • If Managers adapt a theory Y attitude staff are more likely to be co operative and morale and motivation will rise. Democratic and laissez faire managers have a Theory Y attitude to their staff.

Communication third skill of management

COMMUNICATIONThird Skill of Management

  • Refers to the transfer of information from one person to another or between organisations.

  • The sender sends a message through a medium and the receiver must interpret it and act on it.

  • Communication can be verbal, written or visual.

  • Communication can be internal or external.


  • Skills needed include

    • Ability to speak clearly

    • Ability to listen carefully

    • Ability to get clear feedback

    • Ability to write clearly and concisely

    • Ability to select the best method

    • Ability to read and understand

    • Ability to use ICT effectively

Communication communicating


  • Talking/speech

  • Letters/telephone/tv/reports/

  • Facebook/social networking/Texting

  • Email

  • Disruptions=barriers

  • Notices/advertising

  • Internal/external

  • Sign language

  • Eye contact

  • Aids

  • Avoid info overload

  • Stakeholders

Basic elements of communications

Basic Elements of Communications

  • Sender


  • Message (via a medium)


  • Receiver


  • Feedback

Methods of communication


Communicating with people within a business organisation.


Email, memo, intercom, phone,

text, face to face, notice board, meetings, report, pager, newsletter, intranet

Methods of Communication


  • External-communicating

    Communicating with people/other businesses outside the businessorganisation.

  • Types:

    Fax, (advertising) newspaper, tv, radio, internet, press release, letters, emails, video conference, press conference, meetings, text, face to face, EDI electronic data interchange,

External communication

External Communication

  • Banks – The entrepreneur meets with the banker to apply for a loan

  • Suppliers – The production manager sends an order to the supplier for more materials.

  • Customers - the marketing manager writes back to a customer in response to a complaint.

  • Government – The entrepreneur sends in her annual tax return.

Types of communication

Types of Communication

  • Verbal/Oral – speaking

  • Written – writing

  • Visual - seeing

1 verbal oral communication

1. Verbal/Oral Communication

  • One to one discussions, telephone discussion, meetings, lectures, seminars etc..

  • Advantages:

    • Gives each person the opportunity to observe the others attitudes, body language

    • It is possible to clarify and rectify mistakes

    • An agreement can reached more quickly. (i.e. trade unions in resolving disputes)

  • Disadvantages:

    • No record of it may exist unless recorded

    • Speaker may not be convincing and may miss certain things

2 written communication

2. Written Communication

  • Letters, business documents, email, computer print-out, fax, memo, reports

  • There are times when communication must be in writing:

    • To have a permanent record of something that was agreed (contract)

    • To eliminate any misunderstanding – very important is resolving disputes

    • If the receiver is located far away

    • If the message is complex and requires careful interpretation

3 visual communication

3. Visual Communication

  • In business, a firm will have a lot of information that they must present on a regular basis such as seals, purchases, stock levels etc…and therefore use graphical representations to illustrate their figures.

  • Reasons for using graphical presentations:

    • People can grasp an overall picture of the information being discussed

    • They are good at highlighting points for concern.

    • Visual information can be absorbed clearer and quicker.

Forms of presenting visual information

Forms of Presenting Visual Information

  • Bar Charts

  • Pie Charts

  • Pictogram

  • Line Graph

  • Histogram

    Break-even Chart

  • Table






1 bar chart no of viewers of tv dramas

1. Bar ChartNo. of Viewers of TV Dramas

2 pie charts percentage of type of films people like to watch

2. Pie ChartsPercentage of type of films people like to watch

3 pictogram

3. Pictogram

The importance of effective communication to a business

The importance of effective communication to a Business

  • Good industrial relations – if managers communicate with their employees about work methods, new ideas, have upward and downward communication.

  • Better decision making – if managers communicate with each other on new product/business proposals

  • Eliminate waste/bottlenecks – each employee knows what they are to do and this reduced duplications and avoids waste .

  • Intrapreneurship – managers that communicate with their staff will listen to staff ideas and in turn this creates Intrapreneurship

  • Increase in sales/profits- b/c of increased moral in the business customers will be attracted to the business and b/c of effective advertising the public will be aware of the products/services that the business provides.

Barriers to effective communication

Barriers to effective Communication

  • Noise

  • Lack of Trust/Authority

  • Language

  • Wrong timing

  • Incorrect medium

  • Misinterpretation

  • Technology breakdown

  • Lack of feedback

  • Poor listening skills

  • Information overload

  • NB How to overcome these barriers –important exam question.

Barriers to effective communication1

Barriers to effective Communication

The Sender:

  • Not sending a message when you should and choosing an inappropriate time to send the message.

    The Message:

  • Sending inaccurate information

  • Sending a badly worded/composed message.

  • Message is too long and gets ignored.

Barriers that lead to communication breakdown

Barriers that lead to communication breakdown


  • Selecting the inappropriate method of communication that causes offence, ie)

  • Using medium that is too slow.

  • Technological medium used is unreliable and prone to breakdowns.


  • Message sent to wrong receiver

  • Receiver not listening/unable to listen/misinterprets message

  • Receiver has no way to provide feedback

  • Receiver mistrusts the sender, doesn’t believe the message.

How to overcome these barriers

How to overcome these barriers

Effective communication

Effective Communication

  • Brief –time is valuable in business so communications should be as brief and to the point as possible. ie) An e’ee should not send a 10 page report when a short note would be perfectly adequate.

  • Clear –the info should be communicated in a way that is easily understood.ie) complex info such as sales statistics should be communicated using diagrams/illustrations.

  • Suitable –private/sensitive info should not be communicated using a medium that lacks privacy. Business partners may hold a meeting to discuss confidential business ideas. It is important to respect the feelings of the receiver when communicating messages that contain personal info/bad news. ie) redundancy

Effective communications are

Effective Communications are

  • Accurate – effective communication must be accurate as inaccurate info can lead to wrong decisions been made. A written message or face to face meeting might be preferable if accuracy is important. Numbers, calculations or technical data are best communicated in writing. (Telephone calls can be subject to bad connections.)

Factors to consider when choosing a medium

Factors to consider when choosing a medium

  • Factors Affecting Choice of Communication

  • •Urgency: How important is information?

  • •Time: What time is it? – Different Time zones e.g. Japan

  • •Cost: How much it will cost?

  • •Speed: How fast will the information be delivered?

  • •Confidentiality: Is the method secure?

  • •Record: Will there be proof that it was sent?

  • •Recipient: What technology do they have?

  • •Content: Is the method used suitable for its purpose?

  • •Legal requirements: Certain data

Barriers to effective communication2

Barriers to Effective Communication

  • Time: The receiver may not be given enough time to read/listen, understand and respond to the message from the sender.

    Solution: The sender should not expect an immediate response. The receiver of the information should be given an adequate amount of time to fully understand the message and then give an appropriate answer.

  • No Record: If important messages are not written, there may be no record of what was said. This situation may lead to future disagreements between the sender and the receiver of the information.

    Solution: Make sure that a written record of important messages exists

  • Language: If the language used is inappropriate or too technical then recipient will not understand it e.g. a manager training staff in the use of new equipment using technical terms that the employees do not understand

    Solution: The manager should use simple terms the employees will understand.


  • Information Overload: A person may be receiving too many messages over a short period of time. This can lead to confusion if the receiver is so busy that important messages are not being responded to.

    Solution: Reduce the amount of messages being sent to the person, so that those being received will be dealt with effectively.

  • Authority: Too many people may be giving instructions, perhaps contradicting each other.

    Solution: A proper system of authority should exist. People will then understand who is in charge. The chain of command should be clear for all employees.

  • Noise: If people cannot clearly hear the oral message, then it is likely to be misinterpreted. This may lead to bad decisions being made.

    Solution: Deliver the oral message when the listeners are silent and in a noise free area.

  • Relationship with manager:Do staff have a good or bad relationship with the manager, are they afraid of manager

    Solution: manager should build a positive relationship with staff

Meetings the purpose

Meetings – The Purpose

  • To give/receive information

  • To solve problems

  • To make decisions

  • To plan and organise activities

  • To motivate people

Types of meetings

Types of Meetings

Statutory meeting

Every PLC must hold a general meeting of all shareholders within 13 months of the date of receiving their trade certificate.

Ad Hoc Meetings

Deals with a one-off problem concerning the business. ’ad hoc’ means’ for that purpose’

Annual General Meetings

Every company, club and organisation must hold an AGM once a year

EGM Extraordinary General Meeting can be held if a major issue arises after the AGM was held. The directors must convene another shareholder meeting to resolve the issue

Formal Meetings

Regular board meetings, Dept heads meetings

Types of meetings1

Types of Meetings

  • Informal Meeting: these are more casual between managers and employeees

Terms important to meetings

Terms Important to Meetings

  • Notice –is a written document setting out the date, time and venue of the meeting. The secretary sends out the notice.

  • Agenda – is a written list of all the topics to be discussed at the meeting the topics are put in order of importance.

  • Minutes – a written account of what was actually discussed and decided at the meeting

  • Quorum –is the minimum number of people who must attend before an official meeting can begin

  • Standing orders –are the agreed rules for running the meeting. The chairperson must ensure they are being properly followed.

The chairperson

The Chairperson

  • Is responsible for the correct running of a meeting. They act as the spokesperson for the club/company. Their functions include

  • Make sure the quorum is present

  • Open the meeting and start with 1st item on agenda

  • Maintain proper order during the meeting

  • Use his/her casting vote in the event of a tie vote

  • Close the meeting

Characteristics of a chairperson

Characteristics of a Chairperson

  • Confident

  • Firm: to maintain order

  • Impartial: to hear all sides of an issue

  • Be respected by all

  • Organised : to keep to the agenda and hold any votes

The secretary

The Secretary

  • Is responsible for the organisation, administration and paperwork associated with the meeting.

  • He/she must organise the venue, facilities needed.

  • Send out the notice and agenda to all members

  • Record the minutes –the written record of what was discussed and decided

  • Deal with all correspondence

  • Assist and advise the chairperson

Notice agenda for a club the notice agenda for ballinasloe camogie club

The AGM of the Ballinasloe Camogie Club will take place in the Clubhouse on Saturday January 5th 2011 @ 6pm.


Minutes of the 2010 AGM

Matters arising from minutes

Club Chairpersons Report

Club Treasurers' Report

Membership fee for 2012

Election of new Team managers and selectors

Fundraising Activities for the Year/Lotto


Signed ________

SecretaryCarmel Flynn

Notice & Agenda for a Club-The Notice & Agenda for Ballinasloe Camogie Club

Minutes for the ballinasloe gaa club agm

The AGM took place on..at..where.

The minutes are as follows

The minutes of 2010 AGM were read and approved

There were no matters arising

The chairperson Martin Greaney addressed the meeting & gave his report on the years [email protected] and Intermediate level. He welcomed new members…he wished Lisa O Byrne well in her retirement/Congratulated Niamh Ryan on her success with the All Ireland Senior Camogie Team…

Treasurer Aoife Doyle stated that the club had broken even this year and would have to engage in more fundraising activities in the coming year. She also gave an account of the weekly lotto income..

It was decided that the membership fee would be €30 for senior players and €20 for junior players..

Louis Walsh-Intermediate manager, Eimer Cleary U21manager, Fiona Curley U18 manager

Fundraising events decided on- a Golf Classic…

There was no other business.


SecretaryCarmel Flynn

Minutes for the Ballinasloe GAA Club AGM

Notice and agenda for company

Notice and Agenda for Company

The AGM of the Shearwater Hotel will take place [email protected] The Dunlo Suite


  • Minutes of 2010 Agm

  • Matters arising

  • Chairpersons report

  • Auditors Report

  • Dividend for 2011

  • Election of new directors

  • Expansion plans for 2011/ Sponsorship deal with local club

  • AOB

Minutes for a company

The AGM of The Shearwater Hotel took place on @ in…

The minutes are as follows

The minutes were read and adopted

There were no matters arising

Chairperson addressed meeting saying that profits were lower that last year..due to recession and reduced spending power of people and cut backs in businesses

The auditor stated that the company kept proper books of account & gave a fair view of company’s financial position

A dividend of €0.75 per share would be paid this coming year

Amy Dunne and Yasmin were elected directors for the coming year unopposed.




Minutes for a Company

Ict information communication technology

ICT Information Communication Technology

  • Video conferencing

  • EDI

  • WWW

  • Email

Advantages and disadvantages of ict in busines


Very high speed communications

Low cost of sending information

Frees up staff time

Staff motivation

Travel time and expense


Information security

E crime



Advantages and Disadvantages of ICT in Busines

The data protection act 1988

The Data Protection Act 1988

  • Requires any organisation that holds info on other people must ensure that it is accurate and kept up to date.

  • The data subject – is you/me if someone has info about you on their computer/files

  • The data controller – people who hold information on computers about others

  • The Data Commissioner –the person who enforces the Act

Rights of the data subject

Rights of the Data Subject

  • To access to files- to get a copy of data that is kept about you on a computer.

  • To correction of errors/deleted.

  • To complain to the Data Protection Commissioner.

  • To receive compensation if you have suffered as a result of incorrect information.

Responsibilities of data controllers

Responsibilities of Data Controllers

  • To obtain information fairly and openly and to use it for the specific purpose for which it was given.

  • To keep information up to date, safe and secure.

  • To delete information once they no longer need it.

  • To give a copy of the personal data to the data subject if requested.

The data protection commissioner functions

The Data Protection Commissioner-Functions

  • To keep a register of Data Controllers.

  • To force Data Controllers to correct / delete personal data – it issues a written enforcement order

  • To investigate complaints made by the public

  • Force data controllers to give them any information they need to carry out their duties.

  • Provides information to the public about the Act

Evaluation of the data protection act 1988

Evaluation of The Data Protection Act 1988

  • In my opinion…very effective/good in protecting data subject b/c

  • They are entitles to see all the info that is held about them on computers & to get errors corrected/deleted. This meand they will not suffer as a result of inaccurate information there after

  • If they do lose as a result of any innaccurate info they are entitled to financial compensation for loss suffered

  • There is a gvt backed official- Data Protection Commissioner, who will fight for their right to access and corrections and if not the offender will be taken to court

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