Leadership
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Leadership. Leadership is the influencing process of leaders and followers to achieve organizational objectives through change. 1-3. Key Elements of Leadership. Influence. Leaders-Followers. Leadership. Organizational Objectives. Change. People. 1-4. Interpersonal. Managerial Roles.

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Leadership

.


Leadership is the influencing process of leaders and followers to achieve organizational objectives through change.

1-3


Key Elements of Leadership

Influence

Leaders-Followers

Leadership

Organizational Objectives

Change

People

1-4


Interpersonal

Managerial Roles

1. Figurehead

2.Leader

3. Liaison

Informational

4. Monitor

5. Disseminator

6. Spokesperson

Decisional

7. Entrepreneur

8. Disturbance handler

9. Resource-allocator

10. Negotiator

1-5


3 Levels of Leadership Analysis

Group

Organizational

Individual

1-6


Trait

Contingency

Behavioral

Integrative

The 4 Leadership Theory Classifications Include:

1-7


Leadership Trait Theory

attempts to explain distinctive characteristics accounting for leadership effectiveness to identify a set of traits that all successful leaders possess.

1-8


Behavioral Leadership Theories

attempt to explain distinctive styles used by effective leaders or the nature of their work.

1-9


Contingency Leadership Theories

attempt to explain the appropriate leadership style

based on the leader,

followers,

and situation

1-10


Integrative Leadership Theories

attempt to combine the train, behavioral, and contingency theories to explain successful influencing leader follower relationships.

1-11


Great Man (Person) Approach

Sought to identify

the traits effective

leaders possessed.

2-3


Big Five Model of Personality

Surgency

Adjustment

Agreeableness

Conscientiousness

Open to experience

2-4


1. Bullying style

2. Cold, aloof, arrogant

3. Betrayed personal trust

4. Self-centered

5. Specific performance

problems

6. Overmanaged

6

Major

Reasons

for

Executive

Derailment

2-5


Locus of

Control

Integrity

High energy

Flexibility

9

Traits of

Effective

Leaders

Dominance

Sensitivity

to others

Self-confident

Intelligence

Stability

2-6


Achievement MotivationTheory

  • attempts to explain and predict behavior and performance based on one’s need for achievement, power, and affiliation.

2-7


TheoryX.................TheoryY(Autocratic) (Participative)

Support

Control

2-8


Pygmalion Effect

  • Managers’ attitudes, expectations, and treatment of employees explain and predict behavior and performance behavior and performance of employees

2-9


Motivation

“If you think you canyou can,if you think you can’t,you can’t.”

2-10


Leadership Styles Based on Attitudes

Theory Y Attitudes

Theory X Attitudes

Positive

Self-Concept

•Bossy •Pushy

•Impatient•Critical

•Autocratic

•Gives and accepts positive feedback

•Expects others to succeed

•Lets others do the job their way

Negative

Self-Concept

•Pessimistic

•Promotes hopelessness

•Afraid to make decisions

•Unassertive

•Self-blaming

2-11


Golden Rule

“Do unto others as you want them to do unto you.”

or

“Don’t do anything to anyone that you would not want them to do to you.”

2-12


Stakeholder’s Approach to Ethics

  • creates a win-win situation for relevant parties affected by the decision.

2-13


Leadership Styles

Autocratic...........................Democratic

3-3


One-Dimensional Two Leadership Styles Model

Job Centered........Employee Centered

3-4


Two-Dimensional Leadership Styles

C

O

N

S

I

D

E

R

A

T

I

O

N

High

Low StructureHigh Structure

andand

High ConsiderationHigh Consideration

Low StructureHigh Structure

andand

Low ConsiderationLow Consideration

Low

Initiating Structure

Low High

3-5


Although there is no one best leadership style in all situations, employees are more satisfied with a leader who is high in consideration

3-6


Leadership Grid

High

1,9

Country Club

9,9

Team Leader

CONCERN

-

P

E

O

P

L

E

5,5

Middle of the Road

Impoverished

Authority-Compliance

9,1

1,1

Low

1CONCERN for PRODUCTION 9

Low High

3-7


Hierarchy of

Needs

Acquired Needs

Two-Factor

3

Content Motivation

Theories

3-8


The Motivation Process

Need Motive Behavior Consequence Satisfaction or Dissatisfaction

Feedback

3-9


Major Motivation Theories

Specific Motivation Theory

a. Hierarchy of needs theory

b. Two-factor theory

c. Acquired needs theory

a. Equity theory

b. Goal-setting theory

c. Expectancy theory

Type of Reinforcement

a. Positive

b. Avoidance

c. Extinction

d. Punishment

Classification of Motivation

Theories

1.Content Motivation theories

2.Process Motivation Theories

3.Reinforcement Theory

3-10


Hierarchy of Needs Theory

Self-

Actualization

Esteem

Social

Safety

Physiological

3-11


Acquired Needs Theory(employees are motivated by their need for:)

Power

Affiliation

Achievement

3-12


Equity Theory

(proposed that employees are motivated when their perceived inputs equal outputs.)

Others’ input (contributions)

Others’ outcomes (rewards)

Our inputs (contributions)

=

Our outcomes (rewards)

=

3-13


Expectancy Theory

  • Proposes that employees are motivated when they believe they can accomplish the task and the rewards for doing so are worth the effort.

3-14


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