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Cardinal Ambrozic CSS. sUBSTANCE USE and abuse-2. “Gateway drugs”: Alcohol and tobacco. “ Gateway Drugs ” (Theory). The concept of “ gateway drugs ” implies that the use of certain drugs ( eg . alcohol, tobacco, cannabis) lead to the use of other harder drugs ( eg . cocaine, heroin).

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Cardinal ambrozic css

Cardinal Ambrozic CSS

sUBSTANCE USE and abuse-2

“Gateway drugs”:

Alcohol and tobacco

Gateway drugs theory

“Gateway Drugs” (Theory)

  • The concept of “gateway drugs” implies that the use of certain drugs (eg. alcohol, tobacco, cannabis) lead to the use of other harder drugs (eg. cocaine, heroin).

  • Tobacco and Alcohol are often the first two mood-altering (psychoactive) drugs that young people try or use.

  • There are reasons why these drugs are tried first:

    • Availability – they are sold in many locations

    • Affordability – they are relatively inexpensive

    • Accessibility – they are not difficult to access



  • Tobacco is the shredded, dried leaf of the tobacco plant which can be smoked in cigarettes, cigars, pipes, or chewed.

  • NICOTINEis the addictive substance/drug naturally found in tobacco.

Anatomy of a cigarette

Anatomy of a Cigarette

Did You Know??

- There are over 4,000 chemicals in tobacco smoke and at least 40 of them are known to be carcinogenic (cancer-causing).

Disturbing facts findings

Disturbing Facts & Findings:

  • In Canada, the average age at which a person smokes his/her first cigarette is now 13 yrs.

  • The percentage of students who smoke increases significantly from Gr.7-12 (eg. daily use in Ontario ranges from 3% in Gr.7 to 22% in Gr.12).

  • Smokers are more likely to lose all their natural teeth, have remaining teeth that are decayed, and have serious gum disease.

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Disturbing Facts & Findings:

  • More than 50% of adolescent smokers will die before age 70 and suffer a reduced quality of life due to their tobacco use

  • In Ontario alone, 44 people die daily as a direct result of smoking = 16, 000/year.

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  • In Canada, tobacco companies are required by lawto indicate directly on tobacco packages how much of each of the chemicals is found in tobacco emissions (the exhaled smoke).

  • No advertising of smoking is allowed by law.

  • Even with SO MUCH clear evidence, some teens are continuing to avoid the facts OR choosing to make bad decisions regarding smoking…WHY?

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Why teens DO NOT smoke:- ---

Why teens DO smoke:- ---

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  • It is often said that:

    “Once You Start, It’s Hard to Stop”

  • Smoking is a hard habit to break because of the addictive nature of the nicotine in cigarettes.

  • The body and mind quickly become used to it and feel that they need it to function daily.

  • “Smoking is an ADDICTION”

Short term health effects of smoking tobacco

Short-Term Health Effects of Smoking Tobacco

Smoking ONE cigarette causes:

  • Increased heart rate & blood pressure

  • Increased breathing rate

  • Diarrhea (for some)

  • Irritated throat and coughing (for some)

  • Reduced fitness and athletic ability (affects lung power)

  • Smelly clothes and hair (smell of stale smoke lingers)

  • Smoker’s bad breath…….ewww….turn off!!

Long term health effects of smoking tobacco

Long-Term Health Effects of Smoking Tobacco

Some of the major long-term risks of smoking are:

  • Cardiovascular Disease (heart attack, stroke)

  • Respiratory Diseases (emphysema, bronchitis, pneumonia)

  • Cancer (lung, mouth, and throat)

  • Dental Health Problems (loss of teeth, gum disease)

  • Fertility problems

  • Osteoporosis (due to loss of bone density)

As an adolescent and or an athlete that smokes you can experience

As an ADOLESCENTand/or an ATHLETEthat smokes you can experience:

  • Bad SKIN: smoking restricts blood vessels, thus reducing oxygen and nutrients to the skin = pale/unhealthy/wrinkled.

  • Bad BREATH: smoker’s breath can develop into Halitosis(persistent bad breath).

  • Bad ODOUR: clothes, hair and skin often retain the smell of stale lingering smoke.

  • Bad TEETH & FINGERS: smoke can cause yellow & brown staining on teeth and hands.

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  • Reduced ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE: shortness of breath and reduced lung power puts young smokers at a disadvantage.

  • Risk of INJURY & poor HEALING: common sports injuries to ligaments and tendons heal slower in smokers. Skin wounds also heal slowly.

  • Risk of ILLNESS: young smokers get more colds, flu, bronchitis & pneumonia due to reduced immune system function.

  • Bad NUTRITION: young smokers tend to eat non-nutritional meals which can lead to obesity and other health issues.

Benefits of quitting

Benefits of Quitting

  • reduced chances of developing heart disease, lung cancer, breathing problems, and infections

  • increased quality and length of life

  • improved LOOKS (reduced wrinkles, reduced yellowing of fingers and teeth), BREATH, and sense of smell & taste.

  • increased overall energy and activity

  • increased $$$$ in your pocket


Quitting the nasty habit

Quitting the Nasty Habit

Different approaches work for different people:

  • Quitting Cold Turkey

  • Gradually weaning off (cutting down slowly)

  • Joining Support Groups

  • Seeking Medical Assistance (Doctor)

  • Utilizing Gums and Patches (prescribed and over-the-counter)

  • WILL POWER…………

Second hand smoke

Second-Hand Smoke

Second-Hand Smoke = Environmental Tobacco

Smoke (ETS)= “Passive Smoking” = exhaled

smoke from a smoker, or from a smoldering cigarette is

inhaled by another person (non-smoker)

  • The known effects of ETS have lead to laws being passed that limit where people can smoke.

  • A person exposed to ETS is more likely to have respiratory problems (eg. coughing, phlegm).

  • ETS has been found to lead to heart disease in non-smokers and severely irritate people with allergies.



  • Alcohol is the product of fermenting or distilling various fruits, vegetables, or grains.

  • Why is alcohol considered a drug?

    Because it changes the way a person

    thinks, feels, and acts.

  • Aside from caffeine, alcohol is the most used substance in Canada and around the world.

Substance use and abuse 2

Just How Alcoholic Is It?

  • The effects of any alcoholic drink depend on the amount of ethyl alcohol consumed.

  • A standard drink contains the same amount of ethyl alcohol – 17 ml (0.6 oz) regardless of the type of beverage.

  • Each of these is equivalent to one standard drink:

    - Regular Beer (5%) – 340 mL (12 oz)

    - Wine (12%) – 142 mL (5 oz)

    - Spirits (40%) – 43 mL (1.5 oz)

    - Coolers (5%) – 340 mL (12 oz)

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  • About 20% of the alcohol consumed is absorbed by the stomach and the remainder is absorbed through the small intestine.

  • 2-10% of alcohol consumed escapes through lungs, kidneys and the skin.

  • The remainder of the alcohol is

    oxidized (broken down) by the liver.

  • Long-term alcohol abuse can

    lead to cirrhosis (scarring) of

    the liver.

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Blood-Alcohol Content (BAC)

  • BAC = the amount of alcohol in the bloodstream and is a measure of how much a person will be affected by the alcohol consumed.

  • BAC (level of intoxication) depends on:

    * amount of alcohol consumed at one time

    * size, gender, and age

    * rate of alcohol metabolism

    * circumstances in which alcohol is consumed

    (eg. empty/full stomach or angry/depressed mood)

    * other substances (eg. drugs) used in conjunction

    with alcohol

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  • The amount of alcohol in the breath is directly related to the amount of alcohol in the blood….thus a person’s BAC can be measured using a “Breathalyzer”.

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Stages of Intoxication

  • BAC

  • 0.05 (50 mg alcohol/100 mL blood)

  • (0.05 g alcohol/100 mL blood)

  • - enforced legal limit in nearly all provinces (except Quebec) = suspended license.

  • 0.08 (80 mg alcohol/100 mL blood)

  • - true legal limit (enforced limit in Quebec)

  • - above 0.08 = criminal offence

  • 0.10 (100 mg/100 mL blood)

  • 0.15-0.2 (150-200 mg/100mL blood)

  • 0.4-0.6 (400-600 mg/100 mL blood)

  • - fatal = alcohol blocks the brain’s control of breathing

  • - Alcohol Poisoning

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Consequences of Drinking and Driving in Ontario

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  • The drinking age is 19 years old in all provinces and territories, except for Quebec, Manitoba, and Alberta, where the age is 18 years old.

  • Selling alcohol to underage, intoxicated, or disruptive persons is prohibited.

  • Restaurants and bars must obtain a liquor license and follow the above regulations.

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MADD is an organization that focuses not only on preventing drunk driving fatalities, but also on ceasing impaired driving of any kind.

MADD Canada has 70 chapters.

  • Each day in Canada there are ~4 deaths and ~190 injuries

  • from crashes involving alcohol and drugs.

  • Each year, close to 75,000 Canadians have their lives changed

  • in some way by impaired drivers.

Short term health effects of alcohol consumption

Short-Term Health Effects of Alcohol Consumption

Alcohol is classified as a depressant. Its first effects

are to “depress” a persons system causing:

  • Initial relaxation, euphoria, loss of anxiety and care

  • Impulsiveness

  • Impaired co-ordination

  • Slower reaction time, reflexes, and mental processes

  • Changes in attitude – increased risk-taking to the point of bad judgments

  • Speech (slurring of words) and Vision (seeing double) impairment

Long term health effects of alcohol consumption

Long-Term Health Effects of Alcohol Consumption

Some of the major long-term risks of alcohol are:

  • Dependence (Alcoholism)

  • Liver Damage (Cirrhosis)

  • Inflammation of the Stomach or Pancreas

  • Heart Disease

  • Cancer (certain types – eg. Stomach and Intestine)

  • Brain and Nerve Damage

  • Sexual Difficulties – eg. suppression of sex hormone


Alcoholism alcohol dependency syndrome

Alcoholism(Alcohol Dependency Syndrome)

Signs of Alcoholism:

  • Drinking in large amounts over extended periods of time.

  • Neglecting daily activities due to drinking or obtaining alcohol.

  • Steady drinking, even in the absence of appearing to be drunk.

  • Withdrawal symptoms include: insomnia, vomiting, tremors, seizures, hallucinations…..or DEATH.

Fetal alcohol syndrome

Fetal Alcohol Syndrome

  • There are serious risks associated with drinking during pregnancy.

  • Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) – can result from exposing a fetus to alcohol

  • Children with FAS are known to have:

    • Reduced growth

    • Mental disabilities

    • Facial deformities

    • Life-long problems

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