Toxicology
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Toxicology. The Respiratory system. Direct target of toxicity from exposure to many airborne chemicals. Provides an early warning detection system. Provides an exposure pathway for systemic exposure to many toxicants. Is an important organ system for many xenobiotic biotransformation.

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Toxicology

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Toxicology

The Respiratory system


  • Direct target of toxicity from exposure to many airborne chemicals.

  • Provides an early warning detection system.

  • Provides an exposure pathway for systemic exposure to many toxicants.

  • Is an important organ system for many xenobiotic biotransformation.

Toxicological perspectives


  • The average adult inhales approximately 12kg of air daily.

  • Incidents like the accidental release of 40 tons of methyl isocynates in Bhopal, India.

  • Handling and milling grain releases atmospheric dust that may provokes asthmatic attack.

  • Respiratory system play role in the recognition, metabolism, detoxification, elimination of xenobiotics

Respiratory system


  • The human lungs are the organs of respiration in humans.

  • Humans have two lungs, with the left being divided into two lobes and the right into three lobes.

  • Together, the lungs contain approximately 2,400 kilometers of airways and 300 to 500 million alveoli, having a total surface area of about 70 square meters in adults.

  • Each lung weighs 1.1 kilograms therefore making the entire organ about 2.3 kilograms.

Lungs


  • Nasopharyngeal

  • Tracheobronchial

  • Pulmonary

Functional division of respiratory system


Inhalation of aerosolized toxin

opening of sodium channels

release of neurotransmitters

autonomic nerve ending

airway smooth muscles

depolarization

contraction

Mechanism action of aerosolized toxins


Systemic toxicities through respiratory exposure


  • Gases

  • Vapor

  • Aerosols

  • Dusts

  • Fumes

  • Smoke

  • Fog

  • Smog

Nomenclature of airborne toxicants


  • Irritative or inflammatory

  • Bronchoconstructive

  • Fibrotic

  • Oncogenetic

  • Necrotic

Respiratory system injury


  • OZONE(O3)

  • Sulfur dioxide(SO2)

  • Nitrogen dioxide(NO2)

  • Carbon monoxide (CO)

  • Lead (Pb)

Air pollutants


Asbestosis


Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder (COPD)


Centrilobular emphysema


Squamous cell carcinoma of the lung


Normal Chest X-Ray and Lung


Chest X-Ray and Diseased Lung


Bronchoscope


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