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CITES and Succulents. An introduction to succulent plants covered by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species. What This Presentation Will Cover. Introduction to succulent plants Succulent plants on CITES Implementing CITES for succulent plants.

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CITES and Succulents

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CITES and Succulents

An introduction to succulent plants covered by the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species


What This Presentation Will Cover

  • Introduction to succulent plants

  • Succulent plants on CITES

  • Implementing CITES for succulent plants


Introduction to Succulent Plants


What Are Succulent Plants?


Why Protect Succulent Plants?


Global Trade


What Groups Are Controlled?


Cacti


Succulent Plants on CITES


Succulent Euphorbia


Euphorbia Characteristics - Latex


Euphorbia Characteristics - Spines and Flowers

  • Spines

    • Needle like or

    • Complex

    • In pairs

  • Flowers

    • Inconspicuous

    • Showy bracts


Global Distribution of Succulent Euphorbia

No. Euphorbia taxa

250

200

150

100

50

1

0

Source: Carter & Eggli (1997)


Euphorbia Trade

Major Importer

Major Exporter

Source: UNEP-WCMC CITES trade data 1997-2001


Aloe


Aloe Characteristics


Aloe or Agave?

Agave

Aloe

Agave

Agave

Aloe

Aloe


Global Distribution of Aloe

No. Aloe

taxa

150

100

50

1

0


Aloe Trade

Major Importer

Major Exporter

Source: UNEP-WCMC CITES trade data 1997-2001


Pachypodium


Pachypodium Characteristics


Global Distribution of Pachypodium

No.

Pachypodium

taxa

30

15

1

0


Pachypodium Trade

Major Importer

Major Exporter

Source: UNEP-WCMC CITES trade data 1997-2001


Other Succulent Taxa Listed on CITES

Agave

Alluaudia

Fouquieria


Other Succulent Taxa Listed on CITES


Medicinals


Succulent Plants on CITES: Summary


Implementing CITES for Succulent Plants


Enforcement


Enforcement - Checks

  • Check

    • Documents

    • Country of origin

    • Packaging

    • Shipments

    • Trade routes


Wild

Artificially propagated

  • Irregular shape & size

  • Wounds ?insect damage

  • “Corky” stems

  • Uniform

  • Healthy plant parts

General Appearance

  • Irregular & broken

  • Thicker

  • Uniform & intact

  • Thinner & weaker

Spines

  • In shape of pot

  • Roots cut back but healthy

  • Several main roots

  • One main taproot

  • Irregular

  • Dead & broken

  • Cut back when removed from the wild

Roots

  • Usually clean of soil

  • Horticultural soil present (e.g. peat, sand, perlite, rockwool)

  • Native soils and associated plants

Soil

Wild or Artificially Propagated? - Key Characteristics


Wild or Artificially Propagated?

AP - shipment

Wild - shipment

Wild - growth form

AP - growth form


Wild or Artificially Propagated?

Wild - leaves

Wild - spines

AP - spines

Wild - roots

AP - leaves

AP - roots


Implementation: Summary


Additional Slides


Exemptions


Nursery Registration


The CITES Definition of ‘Artificially Propagated’


Detecting Detrimental Trade?The Burden on Exporting Countries

  • Article IV of the convention states that an export permit shall only be granted when, inter alia,’

  • A Scientific Authority of the state of export has advised that such export will not be detrimental to the survival of that species’


Detrimental Trade - How and Why?

  • Insufficient resources to implement Article IV of CITES

  • Poor implementation of export bans on wild plants

  • Smuggling


Tillandsia – Air Plants


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