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Music as a Memory Aid?. Jingles and theme music in ads are extremely memorable Old songs in ads encourage ties to prior experiences Creates more favorable attitude toward the ad, increases feelings of attachment, decreases skeptical reactions, but sometimes distracts from message comprehension.

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Music as a Memory Aid?

  • Jingles and theme music in ads are extremely memorable

  • Old songs in ads encourage ties to prior experiences

  • Creates more favorable attitude toward the ad, increases feelings of attachment, decreases skeptical reactions, but sometimes distracts from message comprehension.

  • To be effective, music must have logical link to the product.

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Like a Rock – Bob Seger

Ooh La La – The Wiseguys

Happy Jack – The Who

Get a Move On – Mr. Scruff

Fly Like Eagle – Steve Miller Band

Chevy Trucks


Hummer H2

Lincoln Navigator

US Postal Service

Name that Company

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Learning and Memory

  • Def. Consumer Learning - A process by which individuals acquire the purchase and consumption knowledge and experience that they apply to future related behavior.

  • The result of information processing

  • May be conscious and deliberate (high involvement), or may be nonfocused and even nonconscious (low involvement)

  • Will be either conditioning based or cognitive based.

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Learning Approaches

Learning Specific Learning

Situation approach learning theory approach Situation

High-involvement learning situation


Low-involvement learning situation




Iconic rote





Commonly used

Occasionally used

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Learning through Conditioning

Conditioning refers to learning based on association of a stimulus and response.

  • Classical (low involvement): using an established relationship between a stimulus and response (Pavlov Dog)

  • Operant (high involvement): molding or shaping behavior by using a reinforcement (sort of trial and error)

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Pavlovian Model of Classical Conditioning

Unconditioned Stimulus

Meat paste

Unconditioned Response


Conditioned Stimulus



Conditioned Stimulus


Conditioned Response


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Examples of Classical Conditioning in Marketing

Unconditioned Stimulus

Bald Eagle

Unconditioned Response

Swiftness, Boldness

Conditioned Stimulus

US Postal Service


Conditioned Stimulus

US Postal Service

Conditioned Response

Swift, Accurate Delivery,

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Making Classical Conditioning Work in Marketing

  • Identify desired outcomes that we are trying to reach.

  • Understand an existing stimulus-response relationship.

  • Tie our brand/product to the existing stimulus

  • Our brand becomes associated with the response.

  • Behavior is now controlled.

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Operant Conditioning advertisements?

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Another Model of Operant Conditioning advertisements?


Brand A


Legs too tight


Brand B


Tight in seat

Stimulus Situation (Need good-looking jeans)


Brand C


Baggy in seat


Brand D


Perfect fit

Repeat Behavior

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Important Operant Conditioning Elements advertisements?

  • Positive reinforcers are stimuli that tend to increase the probability that the behavior/response which preceded it will be repeated (e.g., premiums).

  • Negative reinforcers are stimuli that increase the probability of a behavior/response by removing a negative, aversive stimulus that usually follows it (e.g., Diet Coke).

  • Punishers are negative stimuli that follow a response and decrease the probability of that response (e.g., the bad taste of mouthwash).

  • Reinforcement Schedules – how consistently the reinforcements occur after desired behavior.

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Reinforcement Schedules advertisements?

  • Continuous reinforcement – every behavior is reinforced, leading to more frequent action.

    • Ex. SkyMiles,Visa Rewards, Discover cash back

  • Fixed Ratio reinforcement – reward is given after a fixed number of behaviors.

    • Ex. Subway cards, Just for Feet

  • Variable Ratio reinforcement – rewards follow a random pattern.

    • Ex. Pepsi caps, McDonalds McMillions

    • Play on our love of games of chance

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Shaping advertisements?

  • Involves successively reinforcing behaviors that approximate the desired behavior. In this way, the person gradually comes to perform the desired behavior.

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Cognitive Learning advertisements?

Cognitive learning encompasses all the mental activities of humans as they work to solve problems or cope with situations.

Three types of cognitive learning:

  • Iconic Rote

  • Vicarious/Modeling

  • Reasoning

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Iconic Rote advertisements?

  • Iconic Rote (low involvement): the association between two or more concepts in the absence of conditioning, usually through repeating.

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The Impact of Repetition advertisements?

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Vicarious Learning/Modeling (Lo or Hi Involvement) advertisements?

  • Overt Modeling – A target behavior (the behavior of interest) can be influenced showing the relevant behavior and having consumers observe the consequences that occur to the model (e.g., demonstration, TV ad, salesperson).

  • Covert Modeling – Consumers are asked to imagine the behavior in question and the consequences that could occur (e.g., fantasy).

  • Verbal Modeling – the appropriate behaviors and consequences are described verbally to the consumers.

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Reasoning advertisements?

Individuals engage in creative thinking to restructure and recombine existing information as well as new information to form new associations and concepts.

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The Assignment for Project #1 has changed. Be sure you read it before tomorrow and begin thinking about how you will complete it. We will devote the entire class period to the project.