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Built Environment Sustainability Lecture 14. Overview. Forces propelling change Introduction to high performance buildings The USGBC LEED Building Assessment Standard Connection of technology and high performance green buildings Key energy technologies Building hydrologic cycle systems

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Overview l.jpg
Overview

  • Forces propelling change

  • Introduction to high performance buildings

  • The USGBC LEED Building Assessment Standard

  • Connection of technology and high performance green buildings

  • Key energy technologies

  • Building hydrologic cycle systems

  • Materials innovations

  • Indoor environmental quality strategies

  • Design for Deconstruction and Disassembly (DfDD)

  • Summary and Conclusions


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General Global Impacts

  • Rainforest loss: 1 acre/second

  • Temperate forest loss: 10 million acres/yr

  • 50% of all forests have disappeared

  • Grain production is falling

  • Over 24 billion tons of topsoil are lost annually

  • Fisheries are being depleted

  • Humankind is transforming the surface of the Earth, moving 2x as much material as nature

  • Global warming

  • Ozone depletion


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The 6th Major Extinction?

  • Fossil record indicates 5 major planetary extinctions:

    • Ordovician: 440 million years ago

    • Devonian: 365 million years ago

    • Permian: 245 million years ago

    • Triassic: 210 million years ago

    • Cretaceous: 66 million years ago

  • Is the 6th major planetary extinction underway?

  • And is it human instigated?


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The Oil Production Rollover Point

  • Time when the maximum production of oil occurs.

  • General forecasts are in next 5-15 years

  • Gasoline prices will rise rapidly: $10/gallon

  • Energy value of oil will be less than extraction energy

  • Huge emerging demand from growing economies: China and India


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The Built Environment

  • Comprised of:

    • Public and commercial buildings

    • Houses

    • Industrial plants

    • Infrastructure (roads, ports, airports)

  • Impacts (in U.S.)

    • 40% of extracted materials

    • 30% of electricity

    • 35% of total waste (construction & demolition)


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Sustainable Construction

  • Creating and maintaining a healthy, resource-efficient built environment based on ecological principles (CIB TG16, 1994)

  • Principles and foundation

  • Targets: Factor 4 and Factor 10

  • Timeline: Seven generations or 200 years

  • All phases of the built environment



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High Performance Green Buildings

  • Implementation of sustainable construction in buildings

  • Shift in language: High performance vs. green

  • Resource efficient: water, energy, materials, land, biota

  • Factor 10 Reduction: 292 kwhr/m2-yr to 29 kwhr/m2-yr

  • LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) is the U.S. green or high performance building standard

  • U.S. Green Building Council is the proponent of LEED


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International Organizations

  • iiSBE: International Institute for a Sustainable Built Environment

  • CIB: Conseil Internaional du Batiment

  • Green Building Challenge (GBC)


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National Standards

  • UK: Building Research Establishment Environmental Assessment Method (BREEAM) –Building Research Establishment (BRE)

  • Japan: CASBEE

  • Australia: Green Star – Green Building Council of Australia

  • U.S.: Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) – U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC)


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The U.S. Green Building Council

  • A non-profit promoting green building in the U.S.

  • Members: product manufacturers, academia, designers, local government, federal government

  • Creating a suite of LEED standards for new and existing buildings

  • http://www.usgbc.org


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The USGBC LEED Suite of Standards

  • LEED is a suite of standards

    • LEED-NC 2.1 New Construction

    • LEED-EB Existing Buildings

    • LEED-CI Commercial Interiors

    • LEED-CS Core and Shell

    • LEED-Residential (under development)

  • LEED-NC 2.1 Point System (69 Total Points)

    • Certified: 26 points

    • Silver: 33 points

    • Gold: 39 points

    • Platinum: 52 points

  • Created to assess buildings but actually serves to guide design and construction



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Rinker Hall as a HPB

  • Designed using the LEED Standard, first gold building in Florida

  • Will use 1/3 rd the energy of a UF building designed to “code”

    • Extensive daylighting strategy

    • Energy shedding building: façade wall as shading device

    • Automatic lighting controls: on/off, throttling

    • Stacked air handlers, full 0 to 100% capability

    • Waste heat recovery system

    • Advanced building automation system


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Rinker Hall (continued)

  • Materials:

    • Brick recycled from Hume Hall (demolished 2001)

    • Recycled asphalt paving and lime rock

    • Linoleum and recycled content carpet flooring

    • Designed for Deconstruction

  • Rainwater harvesting, waterless urinals, low flow fixtures

  • Capability for deconstruction





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Benefits of Green Buildings

  • Lower operating costs: energy, water, waste

  • Health implications

  • Workforce productivity

  • Marketplace comparability

  • Advantageous financing and incentives

  • Reductions in emissions

  • Reduced liability

  • Positive image


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More on Workforce Benefits

  • Cost of building: $22/ft2

  • Energy costs: $2/ft2

  • Cost of employees

    • $140 to $350/ft2

    • 10% productivity boost: $14 to $35/ft2 added to bottom line

  • Problem: very difficult to prove the connection between health, green buildings, and productivity


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Technology and the HPB

  • HPB hold the promise for reduced total building cost and lowered environmental impacts

  • Both hard and soft technologies are needed to execute a HPB

    • Hard: products and materials

    • Soft: processes, methods, simulations

  • Surge of new products to support HPB design and construction

  • Movement in this direction is accelerating


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Key Energy Technologies

  • Ground coupling

  • Heat Pumping

  • Energy removal ventilators

  • Radiant cooling

  • CO2 sensors

  • Positive Displacement Ventilation

  • Daylight and occupancy sensor integration

  • Lights: sodium and LED






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Building Hydrologic Cycle Systems

  • Rainwater harvesting

  • Ultra low flow fixtures

  • Greywater systems

  • Waterless systems

  • Integration of natural systems for stormwater uptake and waste processing

  • Infrared control technologies


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Rainwater Harvesting

Roof drains

Rainwater leaders

Concrete cistern -under exterior stair

Waterproofing – inside & out

Overflow lines to storm system

Hatch access for cleaning

Make-up from water line



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Materials Innovations

  • Low emissions materials

  • Use of post-industrial waste in materials: fly ash, gypsum

  • Use of post-agricultural waste: straw

  • Products from rapidly renewing species: bamboo, aspen

  • Buildings that can be deconstructed

  • Products that can be disassembled, reused, and recycled

  • Sustainable Forestry



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Deconstruction and Reuse: U. of Florida

  • Brick (right)

    • Hume Hall demolition

    • Cleaned & palletized by Students

    • Stored for use

  • Irrigation PVC for brick weeps


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Rapidly Renewable Material, Certified Wood

  • Linoleum flooring

  • Wood doors from certified sustainable forest

  • Agriboard (pressed straw) cabinetry


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Indoor Environmental Quality Strategies

  • Broad spectrum approach: air, odors, noise, light, temperature, humidity, vibration, views

  • Low emissions materials

  • CO2 sensors



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CO2 Sensor – Fresh Air Intake Control


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Construction IAQ

  • Eliminate dust, dirt at ductwork

  • Store products off floor (drywall, insulation)

  • 100% outside air flush prior to occupancy

  • No smoking policy during construction


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Construction IAQ

  • Return air filter media

  • Temporary window protection

  • Temporary entrance grates


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Soft Technologies

Simulation

Whole Building Energy Simulation; DOE 2.1, Energy-10, Energy Scheming

Solar Simulation: DHW, PV, BPV

Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)

Daylighting and lighting

Process:

Design for deconstruction (DfD)

Construction processes: waste, IEQ, erosion control, site disturbance


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Closing Materials Loops

  • Most challenging of all green building issues

  • Design for Deconstruction and Disassembly (DfDD)

    • Building Deconstruction: component reuse

    • Product Disassembly: materials recovery

    • Materials Recyclability

  • Coupled with Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR)?

  • CIB Task Group 39 (Deconstruction)

  • www.cce.ufl.edu






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Powell Center Efforts in HPB

  • Powell Center for Construction and Environment started in 1991

  • Expertise in HPB, construction and demolition waste, recycling and reuse of materials

  • Initiated international movements in sustainable construction, deconstruction, and construction ecology

  • Acted as consultants for HPB projects: Summer House, Disney Wilderness Preserve, military projects, Abacoa, Alachua County Courthouse

  • Engage students in deconstruction projects since 1997

  • Also started Greening UF and the UF Sustainability Task Force


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Rethinking Sustainable Construction 2006

  • International conference to be held in Sarasota, 11-14 September 2006

  • Second International Conference on Sustainable Construction

  • Focus is on radical or future green buildings

  • http://www.treeo.ufl.edu/rsc06


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Summary and Conclusions

  • Green buildings meet the goals of resource efficiency and protecting the enviornment

  • Energy savings average 30%, translating into relatively short payback times

  • Additional savings in water, waste, emissions

  • Health and productivity impacts are probably substantial but there are no rigorous studies

  • Green buildings provide immediate financial advantage to their owners

  • New products and services entering marketplace

  • Key element: changing the education and training of future professionals


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