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Kitchen & Bath Lighting PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Kitchen & Bath Lighting. A good lighting design should:. Look good – both people and design space Provide the proper amount of light in every room Be built and constructed within budget, code, and other constraints in mind Be environmentally responsible

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Kitchen & Bath Lighting

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Kitchen bath lighting l.jpg

Kitchen & Bath Lighting


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A good lighting design should:

  • Look good – both people and design space

  • Provide the proper amount of light in every room

  • Be built and constructed within budget, code, and other constraints in mind

  • Be environmentally responsible

  • Respond to the architecture and interior design

  • Produce good color

  • Achieve the desired mood of each space

  • Allow lighting control


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The layered approach to lighting designBegin by thinking in layers

decorative

focal

task

ambient


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Decorative


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Ambient


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ambient

decorative


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Task


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Focal


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Lighting Concepts

  • General Lighting

  • Task Lighting

  • Workplane

  • Distance

  • Footcandle

  • Lumen

  • Candlepower (Candelas)

  • Watts

  • Lamp Data Tables


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Lighting Concepts general lighting

  • Every room must have enough illumination to navigate through it.

  • The amount of light will vary depending on the activities performed in the room.

  • General lighting is measured at the workplane level. If there is no workplane like in the livingroom it is calculated at 30” above the floor.

  • General lighting is measured in “footcandles”


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Lighting Concepts general lighting

  • Even light distribution is the key to great general lighting. Fixture placement and spacing must be accurately placed based on the lamps cone of light.


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General Lighting

General Lighting


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Lighting Concepts task lighting

  • Working at the sink

  • Working at a desk

  • Working at a prep area

  • Reading


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Lighting Concepts workplane

  • Workplane – The actual or implied surface on which work happens

    Distance = Lamp Ht. –workplane height

    Distance = 96”-36” = 60”


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Lighting Concepts footcandles

How do we measure the light on a work surface?

  • Footcandle – a unit of measurement that describes the amount of light on a surface, workplane, art, etc.

  • Lux – The European Footcandle

    Lux = FC x 10.76

    FC = Lux x .0929


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Lighting Concepts footcandles

  • Sphere w/ 1 foot radius

  • 1 SF of sphere surface

  • 1 Footcandle is the amount of lighting falling on that surface

  • There are 12.57 of these one radius square curved planes in any sphere.

  • They are known as Steradians


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Lighting Concepts lumen

Let’s talk about another form of measurement in lighting

  • Lumen – a unit of measurement defining the quantity of light a lamp produces.

  • In order to achieve the proper amount of footcandles necessary to illuminate a work surface we must know the strength of the light source.

  • Only then can we determine how many are needed and how far apart they are spaced.


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Lighting Concepts candlepower

  • Candlepower – the measurement of a lamps intensity, but only if it is directional


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5’

144 footcandles

50 footcandles

640 footcandles


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Lighting Concepts beam angle

  • A directional lamp focuses or redirects its light energy into a cone emanating from a lamp’s lens where it is measured in candlepower.

  • The center of the cone has the most intense light

  • The edges have the least


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The beam angle is defined where candlepower drops off to 50%

From 50% to 10% is called spill light


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Lighting Concepts watts

  • Wattage tells us how much power or energy is burned by a lamp

  • Wattage tells us nothing about the amount of light a lamp can produce

  • A 60 watt PAR38 lamp will have ~ three times the candlepower when compared to a 75 watt R40 lamp.


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Color and Reflectance


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Color and Reflectance

  • Color Temperature

  • Color Rendition Index (CRI)

  • Reflectance


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Color Temperature


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Color Temperature

  • Color temperature is measured in Kelvin

    • 10,000K appears blue

    • 1000K appears red

    • 3000K to 3600K is considered neutral


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Color Temperature

  • Lower color temperature means warmer color

  • Higher color temperature means a cooler color


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Cool colors

Warm colors


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Color Rendition Index


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Color Rendition Index

  • Color Rendition Index is a scale from 1 to 100 which describes the effectiveness of a light source in reproducing accurately, an objects color. 100 being the best.

  • The sun has a CRI of 100

  • The best lamps to use are ones with a CRI over 80

  • Incandescent lamps have a CRI of over 98

  • Fluorescents are the ones we want to be careful with


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Color and Reflectance cri

  • Typical 4 foot fluorescent tube cool white or warm white bulbs have a CRI of around 50 and 60 respectively

  • Color corrected fluorescent lamps are now available in 70 and 80 CRI and those with rare earth phosphorus reach 90


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COLOR TEMP. VS CRI

  • Color Temperature describes how the lamp itself appears when illuminated.

  • CRI describes the effectiveness of a light source in reproducing accurately, an objects color.


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All together now!

  • Lumens -

    • define the quantity of light

  • Candlepower

    • defines the intensity of light

  • Footcandles

    • defines the amount of light on a surface


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All together now!

  • Color temperature

    • describes how the lamp itself appears

  • CRI

    • describes the effectiveness of a light source in reproducing accurately, an objects color.


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Reflectance

  • Reflectance – is the amount of light which reflects off an object

  • This quantity of light is measured in “Foot-lamberts”

  • The amount of light that reflects off of objects in a room adds to the overall illumination

  • So, reflectance must be taken into consideration when determining the Footcandle requirements for a room.


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Reflectance

Example – 10’ x 10’ kitchen

  • Ceiling reflectance -The ceiling color is white 80%

  • Wall reflectance

    Determine the total wall area

    10’ x 8’ = 80 x 4 = 320 SF

    Divide the room into three predominate materials.

    50% is cabinetry (~160 SF)

    20% is windows and openings (~64 SF)

    30% is wallpaper (~96 SF)


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Reflectance

  • Next assign each material a reflectance

    • Natural maple cabinets = 60%

    • Windows & doors = 4 %

    • Dark green wallpaper= 15%

  • Next multiply each reflectance times its percentage of the total square feet

    • .60 x .50 = .30

    • .04 x .20 = .008

    • .15 x .30 = .045

      Total = .353 The average wall reflectance is 35%


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Reflectance

  • Floor reflectance – 100SF of warm gray slate – use medium gray (25%)

    Average the totals:

    Ceiling – 80%

    Walls - 35%

    Floor - 25%

    Average = 47%


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Lighting Spacing Principles

Spacing Directional Lamps -


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6”


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Lighting Spacing Principles

  • Calculating Beam Spread

    Calculate H the distance from luminaire to 6” above work surface

    With a typical 96” ceiling height and a work surface at 36 “ the distance would be 54”

    B= 55°

    H = 54”

    2 (tan27.5° * 54) = ~56” = distance between luminaries


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  • 55 beam spread

  • 54” distance

  • 60 to work plane


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Let’s work an example


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Let’s work an example

This one exists only in a perfect world!

96” Ceiling Height55º Beam Spread


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Another Example

This time from the real world

96” Ceiling Height55 Beam Spread


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56

56


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What beam angle is required?


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58° Beam Angle

58/2 = 29

TAN29 = .5543

.5543 x 21 = 11.6411.64X2= ~24

15”

30”

15/27 = .5556

ATAN.5556 = 29º

29°x 2 = 58º


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Lighting the sink

  • Page 109 in Lighting Kitchens & Baths Made Easy

12”/54” = .2222

ATAN .2 = 12.53º

12.53 x 2 = ~25º Beam Spread


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Lighting Measurements

Footcandles Levels

Inverse Square Law


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Lighting Measurements

  • Recommended base Footcandle Levels –

    • Page 48

  • Adjustment Factors –

    • Page 49


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Lighting Measurements

Inverse Square Law

  • The greater the distance the lamp is from the object or workplane, the more powerful it will need to be

  • The I.S. Law allows you to establish the appropriate lamp candlepower for any distance.


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Lighting Measurements

Three factors:

Candlepower (Cp)

Footcandle (Fc)

Distance (D)

If you know two factors you can calculate the third.


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Inverse Square Law

Candlepower =

Footcandle =

Distance =


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Inverse Square Law

CP

D2

FC


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Inverse Square Law

  • Distance = 5’

  • Footcandles = 40

  • Candlepower =

1000

?


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Inverse Square Law

  • Distance =

  • Footcandles = 40

  • Candlepower = 1000

?

5’


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Bathroom Vanity Lighting

  • Side lighting recommended

  • 30” apart


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