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Kitchen & Bath Lighting PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Kitchen & Bath Lighting. A good lighting design should:. Look good – both people and design space Provide the proper amount of light in every room Be built and constructed within budget, code, and other constraints in mind Be environmentally responsible

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Kitchen & Bath Lighting

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Kitchen & Bath Lighting


A good lighting design should:

  • Look good – both people and design space

  • Provide the proper amount of light in every room

  • Be built and constructed within budget, code, and other constraints in mind

  • Be environmentally responsible

  • Respond to the architecture and interior design

  • Produce good color

  • Achieve the desired mood of each space

  • Allow lighting control


The layered approach to lighting designBegin by thinking in layers

decorative

focal

task

ambient


Decorative


Ambient


ambient

decorative


Task


Focal


Lighting Concepts

  • General Lighting

  • Task Lighting

  • Workplane

  • Distance

  • Footcandle

  • Lumen

  • Candlepower (Candelas)

  • Watts

  • Lamp Data Tables


Lighting Concepts general lighting

  • Every room must have enough illumination to navigate through it.

  • The amount of light will vary depending on the activities performed in the room.

  • General lighting is measured at the workplane level. If there is no workplane like in the livingroom it is calculated at 30” above the floor.

  • General lighting is measured in “footcandles”


Lighting Concepts general lighting

  • Even light distribution is the key to great general lighting. Fixture placement and spacing must be accurately placed based on the lamps cone of light.


General Lighting

General Lighting


Lighting Concepts task lighting

  • Working at the sink

  • Working at a desk

  • Working at a prep area

  • Reading


Lighting Concepts workplane

  • Workplane – The actual or implied surface on which work happens

    Distance = Lamp Ht. –workplane height

    Distance = 96”-36” = 60”


Lighting Concepts footcandles

How do we measure the light on a work surface?

  • Footcandle – a unit of measurement that describes the amount of light on a surface, workplane, art, etc.

  • Lux – The European Footcandle

    Lux = FC x 10.76

    FC = Lux x .0929


Lighting Concepts footcandles

  • Sphere w/ 1 foot radius

  • 1 SF of sphere surface

  • 1 Footcandle is the amount of lighting falling on that surface

  • There are 12.57 of these one radius square curved planes in any sphere.

  • They are known as Steradians


Lighting Concepts lumen

Let’s talk about another form of measurement in lighting

  • Lumen – a unit of measurement defining the quantity of light a lamp produces.

  • In order to achieve the proper amount of footcandles necessary to illuminate a work surface we must know the strength of the light source.

  • Only then can we determine how many are needed and how far apart they are spaced.


Lighting Concepts candlepower

  • Candlepower – the measurement of a lamps intensity, but only if it is directional


5’

144 footcandles

50 footcandles

640 footcandles


Lighting Concepts beam angle

  • A directional lamp focuses or redirects its light energy into a cone emanating from a lamp’s lens where it is measured in candlepower.

  • The center of the cone has the most intense light

  • The edges have the least


The beam angle is defined where candlepower drops off to 50%

From 50% to 10% is called spill light


Lighting Concepts watts

  • Wattage tells us how much power or energy is burned by a lamp

  • Wattage tells us nothing about the amount of light a lamp can produce

  • A 60 watt PAR38 lamp will have ~ three times the candlepower when compared to a 75 watt R40 lamp.


Color and Reflectance


Color and Reflectance

  • Color Temperature

  • Color Rendition Index (CRI)

  • Reflectance


Color Temperature


Color Temperature

  • Color temperature is measured in Kelvin

    • 10,000K appears blue

    • 1000K appears red

    • 3000K to 3600K is considered neutral


Color Temperature

  • Lower color temperature means warmer color

  • Higher color temperature means a cooler color


Cool colors

Warm colors


Color Rendition Index


Color Rendition Index

  • Color Rendition Index is a scale from 1 to 100 which describes the effectiveness of a light source in reproducing accurately, an objects color. 100 being the best.

  • The sun has a CRI of 100

  • The best lamps to use are ones with a CRI over 80

  • Incandescent lamps have a CRI of over 98

  • Fluorescents are the ones we want to be careful with


Color and Reflectance cri

  • Typical 4 foot fluorescent tube cool white or warm white bulbs have a CRI of around 50 and 60 respectively

  • Color corrected fluorescent lamps are now available in 70 and 80 CRI and those with rare earth phosphorus reach 90


COLOR TEMP. VS CRI

  • Color Temperature describes how the lamp itself appears when illuminated.

  • CRI describes the effectiveness of a light source in reproducing accurately, an objects color.


All together now!

  • Lumens -

    • define the quantity of light

  • Candlepower

    • defines the intensity of light

  • Footcandles

    • defines the amount of light on a surface


All together now!

  • Color temperature

    • describes how the lamp itself appears

  • CRI

    • describes the effectiveness of a light source in reproducing accurately, an objects color.


Reflectance

  • Reflectance – is the amount of light which reflects off an object

  • This quantity of light is measured in “Foot-lamberts”

  • The amount of light that reflects off of objects in a room adds to the overall illumination

  • So, reflectance must be taken into consideration when determining the Footcandle requirements for a room.


Reflectance

Example – 10’ x 10’ kitchen

  • Ceiling reflectance -The ceiling color is white 80%

  • Wall reflectance

    Determine the total wall area

    10’ x 8’ = 80 x 4 = 320 SF

    Divide the room into three predominate materials.

    50% is cabinetry (~160 SF)

    20% is windows and openings (~64 SF)

    30% is wallpaper (~96 SF)


Reflectance

  • Next assign each material a reflectance

    • Natural maple cabinets = 60%

    • Windows & doors = 4 %

    • Dark green wallpaper= 15%

  • Next multiply each reflectance times its percentage of the total square feet

    • .60 x .50 = .30

    • .04 x .20 = .008

    • .15 x .30 = .045

      Total = .353 The average wall reflectance is 35%


Reflectance

  • Floor reflectance – 100SF of warm gray slate – use medium gray (25%)

    Average the totals:

    Ceiling – 80%

    Walls - 35%

    Floor - 25%

    Average = 47%


Lighting Spacing Principles

Spacing Directional Lamps -


6”


Lighting Spacing Principles

  • Calculating Beam Spread

    Calculate H the distance from luminaire to 6” above work surface

    With a typical 96” ceiling height and a work surface at 36 “ the distance would be 54”

    B= 55°

    H = 54”

    2 (tan27.5° * 54) = ~56” = distance between luminaries


  • 55 beam spread

  • 54” distance

  • 60 to work plane


Let’s work an example


Let’s work an example

This one exists only in a perfect world!

96” Ceiling Height55º Beam Spread


Another Example

This time from the real world

96” Ceiling Height55 Beam Spread


56

56


What beam angle is required?


58° Beam Angle

58/2 = 29

TAN29 = .5543

.5543 x 21 = 11.6411.64X2= ~24

15”

30”

15/27 = .5556

ATAN.5556 = 29º

29°x 2 = 58º


Lighting the sink

  • Page 109 in Lighting Kitchens & Baths Made Easy

12”/54” = .2222

ATAN .2 = 12.53º

12.53 x 2 = ~25º Beam Spread


Lighting Measurements

Footcandles Levels

Inverse Square Law


Lighting Measurements

  • Recommended base Footcandle Levels –

    • Page 48

  • Adjustment Factors –

    • Page 49


Lighting Measurements

Inverse Square Law

  • The greater the distance the lamp is from the object or workplane, the more powerful it will need to be

  • The I.S. Law allows you to establish the appropriate lamp candlepower for any distance.


Lighting Measurements

Three factors:

Candlepower (Cp)

Footcandle (Fc)

Distance (D)

If you know two factors you can calculate the third.


Inverse Square Law

Candlepower =

Footcandle =

Distance =


Inverse Square Law

CP

D2

FC


Inverse Square Law

  • Distance = 5’

  • Footcandles = 40

  • Candlepower =

1000

?


Inverse Square Law

  • Distance =

  • Footcandles = 40

  • Candlepower = 1000

?

5’


Bathroom Vanity Lighting

  • Side lighting recommended

  • 30” apart


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