Open access publishing the bio med central model
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Open Access Publishing: The Bio Med Central Model. Change is occurring:. From print to electronic From limited access to unlimited access From paid access to free access From output-paid to input-paid From slow to fast publication From expensive to less expensive.

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Open access publishing the bio med central model l.jpg
Open Access Publishing:TheBioMedCentralModel


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Change is occurring:

  • From print to electronic

  • From limited access to unlimited access

  • From paid access to free access

  • From output-paid to input-paid

  • From slow to fast publication

  • From expensive to less expensive


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Traditional role of the publisher is under scrutiny

  • Subscriptions and licences limit access

    • To be useful, research must be used

    • To be used (read, cited, applied, extended) it must be accessible

  • Prices do not reflect quality or costs

  • Subscription prices have increased by as much as 146% in 10 years – e.g.

    • Brain Research

    • 1991: £3,713

    • 2001: £9,148

  • Authors lose rights

    • e.g. to put their paper on a publicly accessible server

  • Often inefficient and slow


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What is being done?

  • PR Initiatives

    • Public Library of Science

    • Budapest Open Access Initiative

  • Facilitators

    • SPARC

    • Open Archives Initiative

  • Publishers

    • BioMed Central


What are publishers doing for us l.jpg
“What are publishers doing for us?”

‘I think scientists all over would be shocked to realise what a phenomenally lucrative business scientific publishing can be.’

Nicholas Cozzarelli-

editor in chief of the PNAS


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Public Library of Science

  • Researcher-led initiative, open letter had 30,000+ signatories

  • Advocated a boycott by researchers of journals that do not make available their articles in open access within 6 months of publication

    • Not to submit

    • Not to review

    • Not to serve as editor or on an editorial board

  • But, this has not proved successful –many signatories haven’t stuck to their promise


  • Budapest open access initiative l.jpg
    Budapest Open Access Initiative

    • Soros Foundation-led initiative

      • Activists and innovators brought together last December by the Soros Open Society Institute in Budapest

      • Signatories are institutions and individuals

  • Agreed outcome

    • To stimulate ‘self-archiving’

    • To stimulate ‘open access’ journals


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    SPARC

    • Library-led initiative in US and Europe

    • Partners with BioMed Central

    • Institutions become SPARC members

    • Advocate open access, and also low-cost alternatives to conventional journals

    • Urging authors and librarians to declare independence


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    Open Archives Initiative

    • Library-technology-led initiative

    • Develops interoperability standards (metadata harvesting)

    • Enhances access to e-print archives

    • Facilitates self-archiving


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    BioMed Central

    • Commercial initiative, independent company

    • Open access for research papers

    • 80+ open access online journals

    • Authors pay at input

    • Supplemental income from advertising and acting as sales agent for review journals published by sister companies


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    Beneficiaries of open access

    • Scientists

      • Much higher visibility: thousands of downloads/uses per paper vs. a few hundred in the conventional journals

      • Speed: publication immediately upon acceptance after peer-review

  • Libraries

    • Open access = free resource, freeing up budget

    • Enabling libraries to play active part in changing the model


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    How does open access work?

    • Taking BioMed Central as an example:

      • Article submitted for publication

      • Peer-review

      • If accepted, charge of $500 or waiver granted

      • Immediately published in manuscript-pdf form

      • Fully-coded HTML and hi-res pdf one week later

      • No restrictions on access whatsoever


    Bio med central l.jpg
    BioMedCentral

    • Independent online publishing house

    • launched in May 2000

    • Part of the Current Science Group of independent companies

    • Publishing peer-reviewed research across all areas of biology and medicine

    • Immediate, barrier-free open access for all


    Bio med central advantages l.jpg
    BioMedCentralAdvantages

    • Immediate and continuous publication online

      • None of the spatial constraints of print

    • True free access for all

      • Not even compulsory registration, except when using search function

    • Fast, efficient peer review

    • Very high visibility

      • 200 downloads per article per month

      • Authors have access to download figures

    • Authors keep copyright and control


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    BioMedCentralMore Advantages

    • Permanence

      • Archived on PubMed Central

    • Searchable and retrievable

      • Indexed in PubMed immediately upon publication

      • Published in one journal, but cross-listed in other relevant ones

    • Deposited in CrossRef, included in BIOSIS, ISI, CAS, Open Citation Project, and others

    • Extensive PR for outstanding articles

    • Opportunities to link to and from email updates


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    PeerReview

    • Online – rapid

    • 2 reviewers plus statistician, if necessary

    • Reviewers chosen from large network of experts in their field

    • Decision on whether to publish based on validity (even negative results are published)


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    Editorial directorate

    • Dr Harold E VarmusPresident of the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (USA)

    • Professor Elizabeth H BlackburnProfessor, Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of California San Francisco (USA)

    • Dr Steven E HymanDirector of the National Institute of Mental Health (USA)

    • Professor Marc W KirschnerHead of the Department of Cell Biology at Harvard Medical School. (USA)

    • Professor Philippe Kourilsky

    • Director General, Pasteur Institute (France)

    • Professor Joseph Boyd MartinDean of the Faculty of Medicine at Harvard Medical School (USA)

    • Dr David G NathanFaculty Dean for Academic Programs at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (USA)

    • Dr Paul NurseDirector-General of Cancer Research UK

    • Sir David WeatherallHonorary Director of the ICRF Laboratories at the Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford (UK)

    • Professor Mitsuhiro YanagidaKyoto University and President of the Molecular Biology Society of Japan


    Bmc open access journals l.jpg

    Biology

    Biochemistry

    Bioinformatics

    Biotechnology

    Cell biology

    Chemical Biology

    Developmental Biology

    Ecology

    Evolutionary Biology

    Genetics

    Genomics

    Immunology

    Microbiology

    Molecular Biology

    Neuroscience

    Pharmacology

    Plant biology

    Structural Biology

    Plus Journal of Biology

    www.jbiol.com

    Medicine

    Anesthesiology

    Blood Disorders

    Cancer

    Cardiovascular Disorders

    Clinical Pathology

    Clinical Pharmacology

    Complementary and Alternative Medicine

    Dermatology

    Ear, Nose and Throat Disorders

    Emergency Medicine

    Endocrine Disorders

    Family practice

    Gastroenterology

    Geriatrics

    Health Service Research

    Infectious diseases

    International Health and Human Rights

    Medical Education

    Medical Ethics

    Medical Genetics

    BMC Open Access Journals

    Medical Imaging

    Medical Informatics and Decision Making

    Medical Research Methodology

    Musculoskeletal Disorders

    Nephrology

    Neurology

    Nuclear Medicine

    Nursing

    Ophthalmology

    Oncology

    Ophthalmology

    Oral Health

    Palliative Care

    Pediatrics

    Pregnancy and Childbirth

    Psychiatry

    Public health

    Pulmonary Medicine

    Surgery

    Urology


    Journal of biology j biol l.jpg
    Journal of Biology (J.Biol)

    • An international journal publishing biological research articles of exceptional interest and importance

    • Editor-in-Chief: Martin Raff, University College London

    • Striving to achieve the fairest system of peer review

    • Rapid publication schedule

    • A variety of commissioned commentaries to accompany every research article

    • All research articles available immediately on publication, free of charge, over the web, with copyright retained by the author


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    New Journals Start your own

    • Empowering scientists to launch new journals in specialist areas (small niches)

    • All they have to do is:

      • Provide a scope statement

      • Assemble an editorial board

      • Select a journal title

      • Provide lists of potential authors

    • BioMed Central provides:

    • the publishing platform

    • the web site and technical expertise

    • Promotional campaigns to ensure that papers are submittedfor publication


    Slide21 l.jpg
    BioMed Central New JournalsSome examples of new, autonomous, journals using BioMed Central’s infrastructure and technology:


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    BioMedCentralRevenues

    • Article Processing Charges (APCs) of $500 per published paper

      • Automatic waivers for authors from developing countries – and to others on a case-by-case basis

    • Institutional membership

      • Includes automatic APC-waivers for authors from member institutions

    • Advertising

    • Sales of subscription products (Faculty of 1000, images.MD, etc)


    Institutional membership l.jpg
    InstitutionalMembership

    • Annual fee proportional to number of biology and medical researchers at each institution

    • Automatic waivers of article processing charges

    • Customized member’s pages on BioMed Central site on which papers by researchers at the institution published in BMC journals are listed

    • 15% discount on paid-for products such as Faculty of 1000 and images.MD


    Bio med central s members include l.jpg

    L’Institut Pasteur

    Imperial College, London

    Cancer Research UK

    Harvard University

    The NIH of the US

    Princeton University

    University of California (all campuses)

    Lund University

    University of Helsinki

    World Health Organization

    John Innes Centre

    CNRS

    University of Amsterdam

    University of Toronto

    Utrecht University

    Rockefeller University

    University of York

    Kyoto University

    BioMedCentral’smembers include:


    Bio med central open access the new scenario l.jpg
    BioMedCentralOpen Access: The New Scenario

    • Authors take charge: author choice

    • Publishing becomes a service to researchers and their communities – not selling of content

    • No need for copyright transferfrom author to publisher

    • Massively increased exposure for research work

    • Introduces competition – breaks monopolies journals (publishers) have – enhances market efficiency

    • Librarians are empowered and can take active part in changing the model


    So what is holding academia back l.jpg
    So what is holding academia back?

    • Given the clear benefits to scientists and libraries, why is the emergence of open access journals so slow?

    • Because what is required is a ‘cultural revolution’

    • Open access can only succeed if enough researchers choose to publish in open access journals


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    The ‘Prestige’ question

    • Scientists want to publish in prestigious, high IF journals, most of which are published in the conventional model

    • Most open-access journals are new and it takes time for new journals to gather prestige, even if their quality is impeccable from the start.

    • The solution:

      • Create more open-access journals, staff them with first-rate editors, and give them time.


    What can librarians do l.jpg
    What can librarians do?

    • Publicise widely the availability of open access journals to potential authors

    • Arrange for the article processing bill to be picked up for the author

      • (e.g. by becoming a member in the case of BioMed Central)

    • Put up posters and distribute flyers from open access initiatives

    • Hold seminars to educate authors about these resources and their benefits

    • Include open access journals in library catalogues


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    ‘It is the scientists who are going to have to figure out how they want their work to be available’

    Mary Case –

    Association of Research Libraries


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    Bio how they want their work to be available’MedCentralThank You


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