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1. Define Physical Change. Physical changes occur when objects undergo a change that does not change their chemical nature. 2. Define Chemical Change.

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1 define physical change

1. Define Physical Change

Physical changes occur when objects undergo a change that does not change their chemical nature.


2 define chemical change
2. Define Chemical Change

  • A chemical change produces a new substance. Examples of chemical changes include combustion (burning), cooking an egg, rusting of an iron pan, and mixing hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide to make salt and water.


3 define physical property
3. Define Physical property

  • Physical properties can be observed without changing the type of matter. Examples of physical properties include: texture, shape, size, color, odor, volume, mass, weight, and density.


Hydrogen and oxygen react to make water

A match burns

A tree is cut down

Sodium reacts with water to make sodium hydroxide

Rusting of iron

Boiling of water

Digestion of food

Boiling an egg.

Melting of ice

Circle the chemical changes


5. Circle the statements which state a physical property.

The boiling point of water is 1000 C

The density of ice is lower than liquid water

Water reacts violently with sodium

Hydrogen burns with a popping sound.

The color of Copper compounds is blue.


1.

The correct answer is D .The properties of shale do not change when it shatters.


2.

B. Separating the water into its elements –freezing water, calculating the density of water, or dissolving sugar in water do not change the properties of water.


3.

D. In rusting, the metal combines with other atoms.


Density                       Mass                                                  m             Density = --------------     or    D = -------                                                 Volume                         v

Adjust the density formula and solve the problems below:

   Mass=dxv                                                               


Viscosity

Viscosity is the resistance of a fluid to flow.

Honey is more viscous than water.

www.oil-check.com


What happens to the viscosity of a liquid when it is heated
What happens to the viscosity of a liquid when it is heated?

  • Viscosity decreases when temperature is increased.

    Hot honey flows faster than cold honey.


Buoyancy is an upward force that keeps things afloat.

www.fas.harvard.edu/.../CokeCanBuoyancy002.jpg


The density of water is

1.00g/ml.

Water is more dense than oil so forms a layer below oil.

http://www.csiro.au/files/images/paao.jpg

www.dmturner.org


1.  The density of silver is 10.49 g/cm3.  If a sample of pure silver has a volume of 12.993 cm3, what is the mass?

Density = 10.49 g/cm3

Volume= 12.993 cm3,

Mass= DXV

10.49g/cm3 x 12.993cm3 =136.3 g


A pipette is filled to 12 mL of sulfuric acid at 250 C and has a density of 1.83 g/mL. According to this information, what is the mass of this sulfuric acid solution?

Sometimes a question will give you too much information.

Focus on what you are looking for – Mass

Mass = Density x volume

=1.83g/ml x 12ml

=21.96 g= 22.0g


Density of water is 1g/ml. If an object floats in water it’s density should be less than 1g/ml.

The only object that has adensity less than 1 is D.

D= M/V

= 60g/65cm3

=.92g/cm3


If a graphic is given, look at it carefully. In order to calculate mass, you need density and volume. Mass = density x volume

= 1.23g/ml x 19.4ml=23.9 g


4. A block of gold has a volume of 800 cubic centimeters and a density of 19.3g/cm3 and the block is divided into two equal blocks. What is the density of the two smaller blocks?

The density does not change when something is cut in half. The density of the two smaller blocks will also be 19.3 g/cm3


H -VISCOSITY a density of 19.3g/cm3 and the block is divided into two equal blocks. What is the density of the two smaller blocks?


D. Decreases the viscosity a density of 19.3g/cm3 and the block is divided into two equal blocks. What is the density of the two smaller blocks?



Elements Compound and Mixtures liquid 2.

Circle the mixtures and underline the elements from the following list.

Air

Sodium Chloride

Copper

Water

Bread

CaCl2

Na


2. liquid 2.What is the difference between an element and a compound?

An element is made up of only one kind of atom. A compound is made of two or more elements combined together in a fixed ratio.

http://www.physicalgeography.net/fundamentals/images/compounds_molecules.jpg



F- Compounds substances.


Define atomic number: __ substances.Atomic number is the number of protons in the nucleus of an atom. Lead has 82 protons in it's nucleus and so the atomic number of lead is 82.


Which subatomic particles are present in the nucleus of an atom
Which subatomic particles are present in the nucleus of an atom?

Protons and neutrons are present in the nucleus of an atom.



What does an atom lose when a positive ion is formed? _____________

An atom loses an electron to form a positive ion.


Bohr models
Bohr models _____________

  • Sodium

Group : 1

Valence electrons : 1

Ion formed : +1

Atomic structure


Chlorine _____________

Group : 17

Valence electrons : 7

Ion formed : -1

Atomic structure


Neon _____________

Group : 18

Valence electrons : 8

Does not lose or gain electrons

Atomic Structure


Sulfur _____________

Group : 16

Valence electrons : 6

Ion formed : -2

Atomic structure



Chapter 1 configuration.

Metals, Nonmetals and Metalloids on the Periodic Table


Metals configuration.

Located on the ______ side

Form ________

Conduct heat and electricity

Shiny appearance

________

______

left

cations

Malleable

Ductile


Non-metals configuration.

  • Located on the RIGHT side of the periodic table (except for ___________)

  • Form _______

  • poor conductors of heat and electricity

  • Many are _____ at______________

HYDROGEN

ANIONS

GASES

ROOM TEMPERATURE


Metalloids configuration.

located __________ the metals and non-metals

Have properties of both metals and non-metals

______ at room temperature

IN BETWEEN

SOLIDS

SOLIDS


Metal/Nonmetal configuration.

1. Which of the following elements is a metal?

  • oxygen

  • calcium

  • Antimony

  • hydrogen


2. Which of the following is not a metal? configuration.

  • Magnesium

  • Mercury

  • Silicon

  • Aluminum


Periodic Table and Trends configuration.

1. Which element has properties that are chemically most similar to the element Se?

Cu

Te

Br

Sc

Te is in the same group as Se and so would be chemically similar to it.


2. Define mass number- configuration.

Mass number is the total number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom.


3. Which groups of atoms are the most chemically similar? configuration.

C, N, O

C, N, P

N, P, As

Ge, As, S

N, P and As belong to the same group and therefore are most chemically similar.


4. The elements in the second vertical column of the periodic table are called?

Alkaline earth metals


5. Which of the following elements are in the same group as Boron?

  • Gallium

  • Nitrogen

  • Silicon

  • Aluminum


6. Which of the following elements is most likely to donate an electron?

Strontium

Sodium

Carbon

Neon


7. The elements of which group in the periodic table are most resistant to forming compounds ______________

Noble gases

Noble gases have 8 valence electrons; their outer energy levels are complete and so they do not react with anything and are resistant to forming compounds.


8. According to the periodic table what is the name of the group of elements that most readily accept electrons?

Halogens – Group 17 have 7 valence electrons, they need only one more to complete their octet .This group therefore accepts electrons most readily


9 name four other elements that will have the same properties as oxygen
9. Name four other elements that will have the same properties as Oxygen.

  • S, Se , Te , Po


10. How many electrons should potassium gain or lose to attain a noble gas configuration?

Potassium has 1 valence electron. When it loses the one valence electron, it now has 8 in its outer energy level.


11. How many valence electrons are in an iodine atom? attain a noble gas configuration?

seven


Elements in group 16 have six valence electrons. They need two more to complete an octet, so they gain two electrons when bonding.



Gaining or donating electrons depends on how many valence electrons an element has.

Be in group 2 has 2 valence electrons , so it will donate two electrons.

Cs has one valence electrons so it will donate one valence electron.

The correct answer is G


Noble gases have 8 valence electrons. They undergo the fewest chemical reactions since their octet is complete.

The correct answer is T.


Answer – H fewest chemical reactions since their octet is complete.

The other element which will have the same properties as calcium should be in the same group as calcium – which is strontium.


Bonding fewest chemical reactions since their octet is complete.

1. An example of ionic bonding is between _________.

a metal and a metal

a metal and a nonmetal

a nonmetal and a nonmetal


2. What is Covalent Bonding? fewest chemical reactions since their octet is complete.

When atoms bond using covalent bonding the atoms share electrons in their outer shell creating full shells for both.


3. Based on their position in the periodic table, what kind of bond is present in the following?

a) Magnesium and Oxygen

b) Potassium and chlorine

c) Carbon and chlorine

d) Sodium and Sulfur

e) Sulfur and oxygen

ionic

ionic

covalent

ionic

covalent


4. Write the correct formula for the ionic compound containing B+3 and CO3-2.

B+3 CO3-2.

Swap and Drop B2 (CO3)3


Use the swap and drop method. containing B

Al+3 SO4-2

Al2(SO4)3

B


To have the same characteristics and properties, the elements should lie in the same group. The element in the same group as oxygen is SULFUR - D


Answer - G elements should lie in the same group. The element in the same group as oxygen is SULFUR - D

Group 16 elements have 6 valence electrons ,they need two more to become stable – Magnesium is able to donate those two electrons as it is in group 2 and so an ionic bond is formed between one Magnesium atom and one Oxygen atom.


Balancing Equations and Law of Conservation of Mass elements should lie in the same group. The element in the same group as oxygen is SULFUR - D

  • State the law of conservation of mass:

Law of conservation of mass states that mass can neither be created nor destroyed.

The total mass of the reactants is equal to the total mass of the products.


When we write chemical equations for a chemical reaction, we use special numbers called coefficients to represent multiple molecules or formula units.  For example;

6H2O

The 6 in front of water is the coefficient and it means 6 molecules of water.

Define Coefficient:


Answer -B use special numbers called coefficients to


Count all the atoms on the reactant and product side . use special numbers called coefficients to

Answer - J


Answer -C use special numbers called coefficients to


Law of conservation of mass use special numbers called coefficients to


Structure and properties of water use special numbers called coefficients to

The shape of a water molecule is _______. This makes water an extremely good solvent. Water is a universal solvent as it is able __________ a number of substances. Water molecule is polar in nature because the oxygen has a negative charge and hydrogen has a positive charge .

Water is unique because liquid water is _____ dense then ice. Ice is able to float on water. This helps fish to survive in extreme cold.

bent

dissolve

more


Draw the structure of water molecule
Draw the structure of water molecule. use special numbers called coefficients to


B. High Polarity use special numbers called coefficients to


Structure of ice use special numbers called coefficients to

H. Expand when it freezes ,creating a floating and insulating layer of ice.


Water molecules are polar. use special numbers called coefficients to



Rate of reaction and Solubility Curves atom carries a negative charge.

Factors that affect the rate of reaction:

Temperature

Surface area- Crushing INCREASES surface area.

Agitation



An increase in pressure increases the solubility of gases in liquids but does not affect the solubility of solids in liquids

http://www.chem.ufl.edu/~itl/2045/change/C12F14.GIF


B. 48 liquids but does not affect the solubility of solids in liquids oC


Answer liquids but does not affect the solubility of solids in liquids

F. 00C


Increased water temperature will decrease the solubility of the gases in it.

The correct answer is D.


Acids and Bases the gases in it.

Properties of acids

Acids are sour to taste

Acids turn blue litmus red

Acids react with bases to form salt and water

Acids are corrosive

Ph of an acid is less than 7

Strong acids are strong electrolytes


Properties of bases the gases in it.

  • Bases are bitter

  • Bases turn red litmus blue.

  • Bases react with acids to form water and salt

  • Most of the bases are cleaning products

  • pH of a base is more than 7

  • Strong bases are strong electrolytes


Examples of acids the gases in it.

HCl- Hydrochloric acid

Sulfuric acid – H2SO4

Phosphoric acid –H3PO4

Hydrobromic acid -HBr

Nitric Acid –HNO3

Examples of bases

NaOH- Sodium Hydroxide

Ba (OH) 2- Barium Hydroxide

Ammonia – NH3

Calcium Hydroxide – Ca (OH)2


Acids have a high concentration of H+ ions the gases in it.

Bases have a high concentration of OH- ions

Water has an equal amount of H+ and OH- ions.

Water has a pH of 7


Since the pH is increasing the added unknown must be a base. A base has higher OH- ions. Answer - D


An acid has a pH below 7 . Strong acids are strong electrolytes that has a high conductivity – Acids turn red litmus blue. Answer is D


An electrolytes that has a high conductivity – Acids turn red litmus blue. Answer is Delectrolyte is any substance containing free ions that behaves as an electrically conductive medium. Because they generally consist of ions in solution, electrolytes are also known as ionic solutions. Acids, bases and salts are good electrolytes.

3. Define electrolyte.


NaCl Breaks apart into Na electrolytes that has a high conductivity – Acids turn red litmus blue. Answer is D+ and Cl- ions in water. In an electric field the Na+ ions move toward the negative electrode, the Cl- ions move towards positive electrode, creating an electric current.

4. Why is NaCl a strong electrolyte?


5. Why does distilled water not conduct electricity? electrolytes that has a high conductivity – Acids turn red litmus blue. Answer is D

The salts in tap water fall apart into electrically charged particles (ions) in water. In an electrical field, these ions are dragged one way or the other, depending on their charge, producing an electric current .

From distilled water all ions have been removed, so it does not conduct electric current .


J. Concentrations of ions in solution increases by dissolving salt in water. Salt produces ions in solution that increases the conductivity of solution.


J. dissolving salt in water. Salt produces ions in solution that increases the conductivity of solution. Bath water has dissolved minerals and so it shows electrolytic behavior.


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