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PART I: Introduction. Chapter 1. Managers and Management 管理者與管理. Learning Objectives 學習目標 :. Managers vs. operative employees What is management? Efficiency vs. effectiveness. Four primary processes of management. Three levels of managers. 學習目標 (cont’d) :.

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Chapter 1

PART I: Introduction

Chapter 1

Managers and Management

管理者與管理


Learning objectives

Learning Objectives學習目標:

  • Managers vs. operative employees

  • What is management?

  • Efficiency vs. effectiveness.

  • Four primary processes of management.

  • Three levels of managers

Management─Managers and Management 吳明泉博士 2006


Cont d

學習目標(cont’d):

  • Essential roles performed by managers. 管理者主要的角色

  • Manager’s job都是 generic 一樣的嗎?

  • Four general skills necessary for becoming a successful manager.

  • The value of studying management.

  • 相關學科:humanities and social science courses

Management─Managers and Management 吳明泉博士 2006


Managers and where do they work

Managers And Where Do They Work?

  • Organization

    • A systematic arrangement of people brought together to accomplish some specific purpose; applies to all organizations—for-profit as well as not-for-profit organizations.

    • Where managers work (manage).

  • Common characteristics特徵

    • Goals目的

    • Structure結構

    • People人

Management─Managers and Management 吳明泉博士 2006


Common characteristics of organizations

Common Characteristics of Organizations

Exhibit 1.1

Management─Managers and Management 吳明泉博士 2006


People differences

People Differences

  • Operatives作業(基層)人員

    • People who work directly on a job or task and have no responsibility for overseeing the work of others.

  • Managers

    • Individuals in an organization who direct指揮the activities of others.

Management─Managers and Management 吳明泉博士 2006


Organizational levels

Organizational Levels組織層級

Exhibit 1.2

Management─Managers and Management 吳明泉博士 2006


Identifying managers

Identifying Managers

  • First-line managers第一線管理者

    • Supervisors responsible for directing the day-to-day activities of operative employees

  • Middle managers中階管理者

    • Individuals at levels of management between the first-line manager and top management

  • Top managers高階管理者

    • Individuals who are responsible for making decisions about the direction of the organization and establishing policies that affect all organizational members

Management─Managers and Management 吳明泉博士 2006


Chapter 1 4636319

  • Management

    • The process of getting things done, effectively and efficiently, through and with other people

    • Efficiency效率

      • doing the thing correctly把事情作好; refers to the relationship between inputs and outputs; seeks to minimize resource costs,強調方法

    • Effectiveness效能

      • doing the right things做對的事; goal attainment強調方向

Management─Managers and Management 吳明泉博士 2006


Efficiency vs effectiveness

Efficiency vs.Effectiveness

Exhibit 1.3

Management─Managers and Management 吳明泉博士 2006


Management process activities

Management Process Activities

Management process:planning, organizing, leading, and controlling

Exhibit 1.4

Management─Managers and Management 吳明泉博士 2006


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Management─Managers and Management 吳明泉博士 2006


Management processes

Management Processes

  • Planning規畫

    • Includes defining goals, establishing strategy, and developing plans to coordinate activities

  • Organizing 組織

    • Includes determining what tasks to be done, who is to do them, how the tasks are to be grouped, who reports to whom, and where decisions are to be made

Management─Managers and Management 吳明泉博士 2006


Management processes cont d

Management Processes (cont’d)

  • Leading

    • Includes motivating employees, directing the activities of others, selecting the most effective communication channel, and resolving conflicts

  • Controlling

    • The process of monitoring performance, comparing it with goals, and correcting any significant deviations

Management─Managers and Management 吳明泉博士 2006


Mintzberg s managerial roles

Interpersonal

Figurehead

Leader

Liaison

Informational

Monitor

Disseminator

Spokesperson

Decisional

Entrepreneur

Disturbance handler

Resource allocator

Negotiator

創業家

困擾處理者

資源分配者

談判者

Mintzberg’s Managerial Roles

  • 頭臉人物

  • 領導者

  • 連絡人

  • 監控者

  • 傳播者

  • 發言人

Exhibit 1.5

Source: The Nature of Managerial Work (paperback) by H. Mintzberg. Table 2, pp. 92–93. Reprinted by permission of Pearson Education Inc., Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.

Management─Managers and Management 吳明泉博士 2006


Is the manager s job universal

Is The Manager’s Job Universal?

  • Level in the organization

    • Do managers manage differently based on where they are in the organization?

  • Profit versus not-for-profit

    • Is managing in a commercial enterprise different than managing in a non-commercial organization?

  • Size of organization

    • Does the size of an organization affect how managers function in the organization?

Management─Managers and Management 吳明泉博士 2006


Is the manager s job universal cont d

Is The Manager’s Job Universal? (cont’d)

  • Management concepts and national borders

    • Is management the same in all economic, cultural, social and political systems?

  • Making decisions and dealing with change.

    • Do managers all make decisions and deal with change in the same ways?

Management─Managers and Management 吳明泉博士 2006


Distribution of time per activity by organizational level

Distribution of Time per Activityby Organizational Level

Exhibit 1.6

Source: Adapted from T. A. Mahoney, T. H. Jerdee, and S. J. Carroll, “The Job(s) of Management.” Industrial Relations 4, no. 2 (1965), p. 103.

Management─Managers and Management 吳明泉博士 2006


Importance of managerial roles in small and large businesses

Importance of Managerial Roles in Small and Large Businesses

Source: Adapted from J. G. P. Paolillo, “The Manager’s Self Assessments of Managerial Roles: Small vs. Large Firms,” American Journals of Small Business, January–March 1984, pp. 61–62.

Exhibit 1.7

Management─Managers and Management 吳明泉博士 2006


General skills for managers

General Skills for Managers

  • Conceptual 概念 skills

    • A manager’s mental ability to coordinate all of the organization’s interests and activities

  • Interpersonal人際關係skills

    • A manager’s ability to work with, understand, mentor, and motivate others, both individually and in groups

  • Technical 技術 skills

    • A manager’s ability to use the tools, procedures, and techniques of a specialized field

  • Political 政治 skills

    • A manager’s ability to build a power base and establish the right connections

Management─Managers and Management 吳明泉博士 2006


Specific skills for managers

Specific Skills for Managers

  • Controlling the organization’s environment and its resources.

  • Organizing and coordinating.

  • Handling information.

  • Providing for growth and development.

  • Motivating employees and handling conflicts.

  • Strategic problem solving.

  • 控制組織環境與其資源

  • 組織與協調

  • 處理資訊

  • 提供成長與發展

  • 激勵員工與處理衝突

  • 策略性的問題解決

Management─Managers and Management 吳明泉博士 2006


How much importance does the marketplace put on managers

How Much Importance Does The Marketplace Put On Managers?

  • Good (effective) managerial skills are a scarce commodity.

    • Managerial compensation packages are one measure of the value that organizations place on them.

    • Management compensation reflects the market forces of supply and demand.

      • Management superstars, like superstar athletes in professional sports, are wooed with signing bonuses, interest-free loans, performance incentive packages, and guaranteed contracts.

Management─Managers and Management 吳明泉博士 2006


Why study management

Why Study Management?

  • Interest in improving the way organizations are managed.

    • Better organizations are, in part, the result of good management.

  • To manage or to be managed.

    • Gaining an understanding of the management process provides the foundation for developing management skills and insight into the behavior of individuals and the organizations.

Management─Managers and Management 吳明泉博士 2006


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Management─Managers and Management 吳明泉博士 2006


How does management relate to other disciplines

Sociology

Political Science

Psychology

Management

Economics

Philosophy

Anthropology

How Does Management Relate To Other Disciplines?

人類學經濟學 哲學 政治學 心理學 社會學

Management─Managers and Management 吳明泉博士 2006


Homework 1

Homework 1

  • 完成個案研究分組(每組5-6人),並選出一小組長。

  • 由小組共同討論如何運用第一章所述之四大管理程序─規畫、組織、領導、控制─來協助小組長進行本學期的個案研究。

  • 記錄討論結果(手寫或打字)於下週上課時繳交。

Management─Managers and Management 吳明泉博士 2006


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管理學歷史演進


Chapter 1 4636319

管理學歷史演進

The Pre-modern Era

  • Ancient massive construction projects

    • Egyptian pyramids

    • Great Wall of China

  • Michelangelo, the manager.

Management─Managers and Management 吳明泉博士 2006


Adam smith s contribution to the field of management

Adam Smith’s Contribution To The Field Of Management亞當斯密

  • Wrote the Wealth of Nations (1776)

    • Advocated the economic advantages that organizations and society would reap from the division of labor:

      • Increased productivity by increasing each worker’s skill and dexterity.

      • Time saved that is commonly lost in changing tasks.

      • The creation of labor-saving inventions and machinery.

Management─Managers and Management 吳明泉博士 2006


The industrial revolution

The Industrial Revolution工業革命

  • Machine power began to substitute for human power

    • Lead to mass production of economical goods

  • Improved and less costly transportation systems became available

    • Created larger markets for goods.

  • Larger organizations developed to serve larger markets

    • Created the need for formalized management practices.

Management─Managers and Management 吳明泉博士 2006


Classical contributions

Classical 古(經)典學派Contributions

  • Scientific management科學管理 theorists

    • Fredrick W. Taylor, Frank and Lillian Gilbreth, and Henry Gantt

  • General administrative行政管理 theorists

    • Henri Fayol and Max Weber

Management─Managers and Management 吳明泉博士 2006


Scientific management

Scientific Management

  • Frederick W. Taylor

    • The Principles of Scientific Management (1911)

      • Advocated the use of the scientific method to define the “one best way” for a job to be done

    • Believed that increased efficiency could be achieved by selecting the right people for the job and training them to do it precisely in the one best way.

    • To motivate workers, he favored incentive wage plans.

    • Separated managerial work from operative work.

Management─Managers and Management 吳明泉博士 2006


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科學管理

  • 科學管理是對人力運用的一種哲學與態度,它所追求的是經由作業層級,減少浪費及無效率,以最少的努力獲取最大的產出。經由Taylor的著作及專業諮詢,他成為推廣科學管理的主要代表性人物。

  • 發展工作設計的科學方法,取代陳舊的經驗法則。

  • 以科學方法甄選、訓練及發展員工。

  • 結合科學的甄選及員工發展方法來設計工作,只要員工能瞭解改變的理由、可預見因而增加收入,會降低對改變的抗拒。

  • 工作劃分,造成管理階層與員工間的相互依賴。若彼此間存在著相互依賴性,則自然伴隨合作關係。

Management─Managers and Management 吳明泉博士 2006


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  • Frank and Lillian Girbreth

    • Bricklaying efficiency improvements

    • Time and motion studies (therbligs)動素

  • Ganntt

    • Incentive compensation systems獎金制度

    • Gantt chart for scheduling work operations甘特圖

Management─Managers and Management 吳明泉博士 2006


Administrative management

Administrative Management行政管理

Writers who developed general theories of what managers do and what constitutes good management practice

  • Henri Fayol (France)

    • Fourteen Principles of Management: Fundamental or universal principles of management practice

  • Max Weber (Germany)

    • Bureaucracy: Ideal type of organization characterized by division of labor, a clearly defined hierarchy, detailed rules and regulations, and impersonal relationships

Management─Managers and Management 吳明泉博士 2006


Fayol s fourteen principles of management

Division of work

Authority

Discipline

Unity of command

Unity of direction

Subordination of the individual

Remuneration

Centralization

Scalar chain

Order

Equity

Stability of tenure of personnel

Initiative

Esprit de corps

Fayol’s Fourteen Principles of Management

EXHIBIT HM–2

Management─Managers and Management 吳明泉博士 2006


Fayol

Fayol 的十四項「管理原則」

  • 分工   工作專業化的觀念。

  • 權威   職位的正式授權 vs. 個人授權。

  • 紀律   基於服從及尊敬。

  • 命令統一   每一位員工僅能從一位上司處接獲命令。

  • 指揮統一   同一作業團隊僅有一位領導者、一份計畫,相同的目標。

  • 個人利益置於全體利益之下   當個人與團體有利益衝突時,說服當事人拋棄個人利益。

  • 報酬   薪資支付的形式決定於許多因素。

  • 集權   集權的程度決定於情境及正式的溝通管道。

  • 授權階級鏈  顯示授權的層級關係及正式的溝通管道。

  • 秩序  確保每一件事情都能就定位。

  • 公平  起因於仁慈及公正。

  • 人事穩定  需要有條理的人事規劃。

  • 自動自發  在所有的工作上均需要發揮各人的熱忱及活力。

  • 團隊精神  強調在組織中塑造和諧一致的氣氛。

Management─Managers and Management 吳明泉博士 2006


Weber s ideal bureaucracy

Weber’s Ideal Bureaucracy

  • Division of Labor分工

  • Authority Hierarchy職權層級

  • Formal Selection正式選任

  • Formal Rules and Regulations典章制度

  • Impersonality公私分明

  • Career Orientation生涯導向

EXHIBIT HM–3

Management─Managers and Management 吳明泉博士 2006


Human resources approach

Human Resources人力資源Approach

  • Robert Owen

    • Claimed that a concern for employees was profitable for management and would relieve human misery.

  • Hugo Munsterberg

    • Created the field of industrial psychology—the scientific study of individuals at work to maximize their productivity and adjustment.

Management─Managers and Management 吳明泉博士 2006


Human resources approach1

Human Resources Approach

  • Mary Parker Follett

    • Recognized that organizations could be viewed from the perspective of individual and group behavior.

  • Chester Barnard

    • Saw organizations as social systems that require human cooperation.

    • Expressed his views in his book The Functions of the Executive (1938).

Management─Managers and Management 吳明泉博士 2006


Hawthorne studies

Hawthorne Studies

  • A series of studies done during the 1920s and 1930s that provided new insights into group norms and behaviors

    • Hawthorne effect

      • Social norms or standards of the group are the key determinants of individual work behavior.

  • Changed the prevalent view of the time that people were no different than machines.

Management─Managers and Management 吳明泉博士 2006


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霍桑實驗與人際關係學派的興起

  • 在經濟大恐慌後,有更多的關注重點開始放置於瞭解員工及員工需求上。自1924至1932年由Elton Mayo領導的「霍桑研究」特別重視工作裡的人際關係,以及工作的心理與社會層面。

  • 在這些實驗中,研究人員改變了許多變數如薪資、休息時間及每天工作時數等,但所獲得的結論與照明度實驗一樣 ── 產量的增加與環境因素並沒有很明顯的關係。

  • 除了物理環境因素外,尚有其他影響員工的生產力。員工在工作中會對心理及社會條件做出反應,這些條件包含非正式團體的壓力、個人的認知,以及決策的參與等。

Management─Managers and Management 吳明泉博士 2006


Human relations movement

Human Relations Movement

  • Based on a belief in the importance of employee satisfaction—a satisfied worker was believed to be a productive worker.

  • Advocates were concerned with making management practices more humane.

    • Dale Carnegie

    • Abraham Maslow

    • Douglas McGregor

Management─Managers and Management 吳明泉博士 2006


The quantitative approach

The Quantitative 計量Approach

  • Operations research 作業研究(management science管理科學)

    • Evolved out of the development of mathematical and statistical solutions to military problems during World War II.

    • Involves the use of statistics, optimization models, information models, and computer simulations to improve management decision making for planning and control.

Management─Managers and Management 吳明泉博士 2006


Social events that shaped management approaches

Social Events That Shaped Management Approaches

  • Classical approach

    • Desire for increased efficiency of labor intensive operations

  • Human resources approach

    • The backlash to the overly mechanistic view of employees held by the classicists.

    • The Great Depression.

  • The quantitative approaches

    • World War II

Management─Managers and Management 吳明泉博士 2006


The process approach

The Process程序 Approach

  • Management theory jungle (Harold Koontz)

    • The diversity of approaches to the study of management—functions, quantitative emphasis, human relations approaches—each offer something to management theory, but many are only managerial tools.

  • Planning, leading, and controlling activities are circular and continuous functions of management.

Management─Managers and Management 吳明泉博士 2006


The systems approach

The Systems系統 Approach

  • Defines a system as a set of interrelated and interdependent parts arranged in a manner that produces a unified whole

    • Closed system : a system that is not influenced by and does not interact with its environment

    • Open system: a system that dynamically interacts with its environment

    • Stakeholders: any group that is affected by organizational decisions and policies

Management─Managers and Management 吳明泉博士 2006


The organization and its environment

The Organization and its Environment

EXHIBIT HM–4

Management─Managers and Management 吳明泉博士 2006


The contingency approach

The Contingency權變 Approach

  • The situational approach to management that replaces more simplistic systems and integrates much of management theory

  • Four popular contingency variables

    • Organization size

    • Routineness of task technology

    • Environmental uncertainty

    • Individual differences

Management─Managers and Management 吳明泉博士 2006


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