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CHAPTER 1 Floriculture - A Dynamic Industry What are commercial greenhouses used for? 1. Fresh flowers 2. Flowering Plants 3. Green Plants 4. Bedding Plants 5. Vegetable Production 6. Woody Ornamental Propagation The desire to buy floral products is greater in which zone? Zone A

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CHAPTER 1

Floriculture -

A Dynamic Industry


What are commercial greenhouses used for?

  • 1. Fresh flowers


  • 2. Flowering Plants


  • 3. Green Plants


  • 4. Bedding Plants


  • 5. Vegetable Production


  • 6. Woody Ornamental Propagation


The desire to buy floral products is greater in which zone?

Zone A

Zone B

Zone C


The Answer

A & B

Zone A

(frigid)

Zone B

(temperate)

Zone C

(sub-tropical)


Most greenhouse production used to be located:

  • In northern parts of Europe, Japan, and the United States

  • Why?

  • Cheap heating fuel

  • Inefficient cooling technology

  • Population Centers (at least in US)


Production is moving southward due to:

  • Expensive heating fuel costs

  • Development of more efficient cooling systems

  • Available, rapid transportation


Texas Growers in the Top 100

  • 2. Hines Wholesale$53.0 M

  • 6. Greenleaf Nursery 34.0 M

  • 18. Powell Plant Farms 17.5 M

  • 28. Lone Star Growers 10.7 M

  • 45. Hawkins Nursery 7.7 M

  • 47. Turkey Creek Farms 7.6 M

  • 58. Coop. Rose Growers 6.5 M

  • 72. Nortex Nursery 5.0 M


1. Florida

2. California

3. Oregon

4. Pennsylvania

5. New Jersey

6. Michigan

7. North Carolina

8. New York

9. Georgia

10. Alabama

11. Maryland

12. Ohio

13. Washington

14. Tennessee

15. Connecticut

16. Texas

State Ranking in Nursery Production (greenhouse & outdoor)


What is being grown in greenhouses?

1. Chrysanthemums

2. Roses

3. Carnations

4. Foliage plants

5. Geranium

6. Gladiolus

7. Poinsettias


Foliage, Bedding

Plants

Bulb crops

Cut Flowers

Foliage, Roses,

Bedding Plants

Carnations

Greenhouse Production Areas


International Competition

Columbia

- High elevations

Cool nights

Mild Days

- Cheap wages

- Production

Carnations, daisies, mums, roses


Australia/New Zealand

- Mild, humid climate

- Production

Orchids


Netherlands

- Cool, mild climates

- Production

Bulb crops

Cut flowers (roses)


Brazil

- Warm, sunny

- Production

Roses


Factors InfluencingLocation of Production

  • Cost of Production

    • Heating, Cooling, Labor, Land, Taxes

  • Product Quality

    • Daylength, Light Intensity, Temperature

  • Cost & Availability of Transportation


Case Studies (examples)

  • Carnations

    • Up to 1950, costly transportation forced production near markets in the northeast even though poor quality flowers due to dark winter months

    • With cheaper transportation, production moved to Colorado for improved quality


  • Chrysanthemums

    • Due to cheaper transportation in the 1960’s, production moved south away from markets to utilize cheap outdoor production techniques

    • Reductions in plant and flower quality forced production back indoors


Categories ofGreenhouse Plants

  • Fresh flowers - flowers which are cut from the plant prior to sale

    (roses, mums, carnations, etc.)

  • Flowering plants - flower bearing plants which are sold in a pot

    (chrysanthemum, etc.)


  • Green plants (foliage plants) - plants sold in a pot and valued more for their foliage than their flowers

    (Ivy, Rubber Trees, Ferns, etc.)

  • Bedding plants - young plants sold for planting around the home

    (Vegetables, Impatiens, Marigold, etc.)

  • Vegetables - grown to maturity in a greenhouse

    (Tomatoes, Lettuce)


Future of theGreenhouse Industry

  • Growing demand for greenhouse crops

    • Expect increased production of green plants, flowering plants, bedding plants

      • Increased awareness of interior & exterior landscapes

      • Potted plants are competitive on a more local basis due to difficulties and expense of long distance transportation


  • Although fresh flower demand will also increase, production may not increase dramatically in US due to cheaper production costs in other countries and affordable transportation to import


  • Changing market channels

    • The retail florist

      • 85% of all fresh flowers are sold to weddings & funerals

      • 200 to 400% markup

    • The mass market

      • Mostly unarranged, bundled flowers

      • 25 to 40% markup


  • Who is the largest retail marketer of fresh flowers in the US?


  • Who is the largest retail marketer of fresh flowers in the US?

    Kroger


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