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You Need the Following:. Papers on the Table SCIENCE BOOK! Sheet of Paper Turn in your Test Self-Assessment Turn in any test corrections. Earthquakes. What is an Earthquake?. Earthquakes : Vibrations (seismic waves) within Earth materials are produced by the rapid release of energy

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You need the following

You Need the Following:

  • Papers on the Table

  • SCIENCE BOOK!

  • Sheet of Paper

  • Turn in your Test Self-Assessment

    • Turn in any test corrections


You need the following

Earthquakes


What is an earthquake

What is an Earthquake?

  • Earthquakes: Vibrations (seismic waves) within Earth materials are produced by the rapid release of energy

    • Earth’s crust is in constant motion because of tectonic forces

    • Earth’s crust can store elasticenergy

    • When forces exceed the elastic limits and structural strength of the rocks, the rocks will break and/or move producing vibrations that travel outward in all directions


Earthquakes

Earthquakes

  • The actual place underground where the rocks break producing vibrations is called the focus

  • The place on the surface directly above the focus is called the epicenter


You need the following

How Earthquakes Occur


What types of forces are created

What types of forces are created?

Tension Force:

  • stretching or pulling force

  • Makes a normal fault


You need the following

Normal Fault

http://www.geo.uib.no/jordskjelv/index.php?topic=earthquakes&lang=en


What types of forces are created1

What types of forces are created?

Compression Force:

  • force pushing something together

  • Makes a reverse fault


You need the following

Reverse Fault

http://www.geo.uib.no/jordskjelv/index.php?topic=earthquakes&lang=en


What types of forces are created2

What types of forces are created?

Shear Force:

  • a system of forces that operates against a body from different sides

  • Makes a strike-slip fault


You need the following

Strike-Slip Fault

http://www.geo.uib.no/jordskjelv/index.php?topic=earthquakes&lang=en


You need the following

Types of Faults Overview


Do the following

Do the Following:

  • Turn in your What are Earthquakes? Directed Reading

  • Fill out your Agenda

  • Get out your Earthquake Notes

  • Make sure you have your SCIENCE BOOK!


  • What causes earthquakes

    What Causes Earthquakes?

    • Movement along faults: occurs when the energy exceeds the friction holding the sides of the fault together and is suddenly released.

    • Movement of magma (volcanic)

    • Volcanic eruptions


    Seismic waves

    Seismic Waves

    Originate at the focus and travel outward in all directions

    • Foreshocks: small earthquakes that come before a major earthquake

    • Aftershocks: Are adjustments in the crust after in earthquake

      • Smaller than main earthquake, but can cause as much or more damage. They can continue for weeks to months. Not every earthquake produces aftershocks


    Seismic waves1

    Seismic Waves


    3 types of seismic waves

    3 Types of seismic Waves

    • P waves (primary waves) Compressional wave

      • Particles move back and forth in the same direction as the wave

      • Travels the fastest

      • Can pass through solids and liquids (gases also)

      • Does not cause damage


    Types of waves

    Types of Waves

    • S wave (secondary wave, shear wave)

      • Particles move at right angles to the direction of the wave

      • Travels slower than P waves

      • Can pass through solids only

      • Does not cause damage


    Types of waves1

    Types of Waves

    • L wave (long wave, surface wave, ground wave)

      • Particles move in elliptical orbit

      • Originates on the surface after the P and S waves go straight up from the focus and reach the surface

      • The L wave causes the damage and will be the strongest at the epicenter

      • Travels the slowest


    How do we measure earthquakes

    How Do We Measure Earthquakes?

    Earthquake waves are recorded by a seismograph and the recording of waves on paper is called seismogram


    How do we measure earthquakes1

    How Do We Measure Earthquakes?

    • Intensity – a measure of the effects on an earthquake at a particular location

    • Magnitude: a measure of the strength or amount of energy released during an earthquake


    How do we measure earthquakes2

    How Do We Measure Earthquakes?

    • Richter Scale: Measures the amplitude of earthquake waves on seismograms

      • Scale from 1-10

      • Each number is 10 times the amplitude of the number below


    Do the following1

    Do the Following:

    • Get out your Earthquake Notes

    • Make sure you have your SCIENCE BOOK!


    Earthquake dangers

    Earthquake Dangers

    • Most injuries and deaths are caused by falling objectsand most property damage results from fires that start

      • Tsunami: seismic sea wave sometimes generated when an earthquake originates on the ocean floor


    Tsunami december 2004

    Tsunami—December 2004

    http://www.bedford.k12.ny.us:16080/flhs/science/images/tsunami2004/


    Earthquake dangers1

    Earthquake Dangers

    • Seiche: rhythmic sloshing of small bodies of water

    A seiche is the sloshing of a closed body of water from earthquake shaking. Swimming pools often have seiches during earthquakes.


    Earthquake dangers2

    Earthquake Dangers

    • Liquefaction: unconsolidated materials that are water saturated may turn to a fluid causing some underground objects such as storage tanks to float to the surface

    Ground fissures caused by liquefaction near the mouth of the Pajaro River in California during the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. When the surface of the ground oscillates, wet, sandy, and muddy soils can flow like a liquid. This is liquefaction. You can liquefy wet sand at the beach by pumping it up and down with your feet. Photo courtesy of the Loma Prieta Collection, Earthquake Engineering Research Center, UC Berkeley.


    Earthquake dangers3

    Earthquake Dangers

    • Landslides


    Earthquake safety

    Earthquake Safety

    • Protect yourself from falling objects (GET UNDER SOMETHING) or stand in a hallway or doorway (watch out for a swinging door)

    • Do not try to go outside during the earthquake

    • After the earthquake and before the aftershocks, go outside

    • Do not return to the building until it has been inspected


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