Storytelling. academic colonization.
“Outside academic theory people are usually excellent at making distinctions between narrative, drama and games. If I throw a ball at you I don\'t expect you to drop it and wait until it starts telling stories. On the other hand, if and when games and especially computer games are studied and theorized they are almost without exception colonised from the fields of literary, theatre, drama and film studies. Games are seen as interactive narratives, procedural stories or remediated cinema”
(Eskelinen, 2001, n.1 www.gamestudies.org)
(Juul, 2001, n.1 www.gamestudies.org)
“Our fixation on electronic games and stories is in part an enactment of a denial of death. They offer us a chance to erase memory, to start over, to replay an event and try for a different resolution. In this respect, electronic media have the advantage of enacting a deeply comic vision of retrievable mistakes and open options.”
“The charm of a text is that it forces you to face destiny”
catharsis is impossible
Storytelling is not opposed to interaction
A person has a problem ⃗ tries to understand it ⃗ makes a choice (usually difficult) that changes understading and resolves the difficulty.
Essential:What? (Plot) Who? (Character) Why? (Causality)
Optional: Where? (Descriptions) When? (Temporality)
do games have...
The 20 master plots of all time, by Ronald B. Tobias
It is not the same to read about a detective´s work than to play the detective´s role, in a way to be the detective. Most adventure games cast the player in a detective´s role under various guises: the detective of Deadline, the mistery-writer "Shattenjäger" of the Gabriel Knight series, the curious traveller of Myst, the journalist of The11th Hour... Something has happened (usually a crime, assault, disappearance or any mysterious deed the programmers can think of), and the player must investigate in order to learn what. She must look for a plot behind the apparently meaningless terrible acts in order to reconstruct the story from clues that she finds at the crime scenes and the interviewing of the non-playing characters. The main character/player usually has a motivation: to find a lost girlfriend, to free somebody, to write a book, etc.
Jonas Heide Smith
Reader constructs scenarios imaginarily.
“The characters in a film, book or play are the people that the film, book, or play is about.”
Collins English Dictionary
Viewer watches unfolding scenarios.
“You are Blade Runner Ray McCoy, engaged in an adventure uniquely your own. But what you don’t know each time you play is whether you --or anyone else-- is human or replicant.”
Westwood’s Blade Runner official website
Illusion of control
- are part of a frame narrative (Half Life)
- are “the goal” of the game (any RPG)
- “live” a story (adventure games)
LEVELS OF NARRATIVE DETERMINATION
Jesper Juul, 2001.