Agricultural revolutions
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Agricultural Revolutions. There are 3 of them. Before Agricultural Societies NOMADIC: Hunting and Gathering Societies. What is a Revolution and how can you have a farming revolution?. So then What?. A revolution is any fundamental change or reversal of conditions,

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Agricultural Revolutions

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Agricultural revolutions

Agricultural Revolutions

There are3 of them


Before agricultural societies nomadic hunting and gathering societies

Before Agricultural SocietiesNOMADIC:Hunting and Gathering Societies


What is a revolution and how can you have a farming revolution

What is a Revolution and how can you have a farming revolution?

So then

What?

A revolution is any fundamental

change or reversal of conditions,

a great and sometimes violent change

or innovation


Agricultural revolutions

The Neolithic Revolution


Agricultural revolutions

The Neolithic Revolution

The Neolithic Revolution

(8000BCE-3500BCE)

  • Humans begin to slowly domesticate plant and animal stocks in SW Asia.

  • Agriculture requires nomadic peoples to become sedentary.


Agricultural revolutions

The Neolithic Revolution

Costs & Advantages of Agriculture


Agricultural revolutions

The Neolithic Revolution

Agriculture Slowly Spreads: What do you notice about the core areas?


Agricultural revolutions

The Neolithic Revolution

Sedentary Agriculturalists Dominate

  • High starch diets slowly allow

  • Sedentary populations to grow.

  • First plow invented c.6000BCE;

  • crop yields grow exponentially by 4000BCE.

  • Pop. grows from 5-8 million to 60-70 million.

  • Eventually agricultural populations begin to spread out, displacing or assimilating nomadic groups; farming groups grow large enough for advanced social organization.


Agricultural revolutions

The Open-field System

  • Cooperative plowing

  • Conserved the quality of land

  • Balanced distribution of good land

  • Farmers were part of a “team”

  • Gleaning


Agricultural revolutions

The Neolithic Revolution

First Towns Develop

Catal Huyuk

Modern Turkey

First settled:

c. 7000BCE

Jericho

Modern Israel

First settled:

c. 7000BCE


So what came after the neolithic revolution

So what came after the Neolithic Revolution?

?

Oh Yeah! The actual

Agricultural Revolution.


Agricultural revolutions

Agricultural Revolution

15th and 18th

Century Farming


All right so there was going to be a great change

All right,so there was going to be a great change...

What exactly was this great change?

Great changes, you mean - and innovations

All right CHANGES..

First of all, there was enclosure, then there was the new machinery such as the seed drill and horse plough, not to mention marling and selective breeding…..


Enclosures

Enclosures?

This meant enclosing the land.

The open fields were divided up and everyone who could prove they owned some land would get a share. Dividing the open land into small fields and putting hedges and fences around them. Everyone had their own fields and could use them how they wished.


Agricultural revolutions

Enclosure

  • Before

  • AFTER

  • Each landowner received a single piece of property

  • No common lands


Selective breeding

Selective Breeding?

Some farmers such as Robert

Bakewell and the Culley

brothers concentrated on selective breeding.

This meant only allowing the fittest and strongest of their

cattle, sheep, pigs and horses to mate.

You can tell how successful they were:

In 1710 the average weight for cattle was

168 Kg by 1795 - it was 363 Kg


What other new ideas were there

What other new ideas were there?

Marling

Crop rotation

Seed drill

Publicity

New ploughs

and hoes


Publicity

Publicity?!

Yeah, books were written on farming.

The Board of Agriculture was set up and Arthur Young, the new secretary, went round the country recording the progress of the revolution and others could read his report to find out more.

Agricultural shows with competitions were held and people could exchange ideas and see the latest things.


Your tasks

Your tasks

1. Find out about crop rotation, what were the crops

and how did they rotate? Who had the idea?

2. Agricultural shows - who had the idea? How did he encourage his tenants to use the new fangled ideas?

3. What is marling?

4. JethroTull - who is he and why is 1701 significant?

5. New ploughs and hoes? How were they different?

6. What is gleaning?

7. How did farming change between 1701 and 1850?


Agricultural revolutions

a. Crop Rotation

English gentleman farmer Viscount Charles “Turnip” Townsend

Alternating grain crops: wheat and barley, with soil enriching crops: turnips and clovers.

No longer had to leave land fallow

g. Scientific Breeding

1725-1795

Selective breeding of animals

Produced more and better animals

Produced more milk and meat

Some Answers


So first was neolithic and then it was agricultural now what

So first was Neolithic and then it was Agricultural, now what?

Ohhhhh…..

Green Revolution


The green revolution

(The Third Agricultural Revolution)

Starts in 19th Century

And Biotechnology

THE GREEN REVOLUTION


Green revolution

Adoption of new, improved varieties of grains

Application of better agricultural techniques

Irrigation

Mechanization

Use of fertilizer

Use of pesticides

Since 1950’s

Agricultural output outpaced population growth even without adding additional cropland

GREEN REVOLUTION

A complex of improvements which greatly increased agricultural production


Agricultural revolutions

“Green Revolution”benefits

  • Core exports high-yield “miracle” seeds

  • Needed oil-based fertilizers, pesticides

  • Asian rice crop up 66% in 1965-85

  • Favored areas with good soil, weather


Agricultural revolutions

“Green Revolution”drawbacks

  • Favored farmers who could afford seeds,

  • inputs, machines, irrigation

  • Indebted farmers lost land, moved to cities

  • New “monocrops” lacked resistance to disease/pests

  • Environmental contamination, erosion

  • Oriented to export “cash crops,” not domestic food


Biotechnology continues to change agriculture

Biotechnology continues to change agriculture.

I guess during the Green Revolution,

biotechnologies started to

advance agriculture.


Agricultural revolutions

Biotechnology: Using organisms to…

  • Make or modify products

  • Improve plants or animals

  • Develop new microorganisms

  • Crossing natural divides between species

    • Not just crossbreeding


Agricultural revolutions

Genetic Engineering


Agricultural revolutions

Biotechnologybenefits in agriculture

  • Increase yields

  • Increase pest resistance

  • Grow crops in new areas


Agricultural revolutions

Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO)

Consumer concerns

began in Europe,

now in U.S. too


Agricultural revolutions

Biotechnologydrawbacks in agriculture

  • High costs (available to few)

  • Monocrops have less tolerance to disease

  • Possible health effects

  • Contamination of wild crops (“superweeds”)

  • Corporate patents on life forms


Agricultural revolutions

San Francisco

Farmers’ Market


Agricultural revolutions

Minneapolis airport

flower stand


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