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The Heart. Heart location Ventral cavity – Thoracic cavity – Mediastinal cavity – Pericardial cavity 2/3 shifted left Extends from rib 2 to 5 th intercostal space Apex Left ventricle Points toward left hip Base Upper posterior surface Predominantly left atrium Sternocostal surface

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Presentation Transcript
description of the heart part 1
Heart location

Ventral cavity – Thoracic cavity – Mediastinal cavity – Pericardial cavity

2/3 shifted left

Extends from rib 2 to 5th intercostal space

Apex

Left ventricle

Points toward left hip

Base

Upper posterior surface

Predominantly left atrium

Sternocostal surface

Diaphragmatic surface

Individual’s heart is about the size of the person’s closed fist

Description of the Heart (Part 1)
description of the heart part 2
Pericardial Sac

Fibrous pericardium

Serous pericardium

Parietal

Visceral

Pericardial cavity

Cardiac Wall

Epicardium – Visceral pericardium

Myocardium – Muscle layer

Endocardium – Lining

Chambers

Valves

Clinical Applications

CPR

Cardiac tamponade

Pericarditis

Myocarditis

Endocarditis

Description of the Heart (Part 2)
description of the heart part 3
Cardiac Chambers

Atria

Thin walls

Pectinate muscle

Separated by

Interatrial septum

Fossa (foramen) ovalis

Right

Receives oxygen depleted blood from body

Lowest blood pressure in body

Left

Receives oxygen enriched blood from lungs

Ventricles

Thick walls

Trabeculae carnae

Separated by – Interventricular septum

Right

Receives blood from R. Atrium

Description of the Heart (Part 3)
description of the heart part 4
Pumps blood to lungs

Left

Receives blood from L. atrium

Pumps blood to body

Highest blood pressure

Cardiac Valves

Structure

Cusp

Endocardium

Dense connective tissue

Chordae tendinae

Papillary muscle

Function

Prevent reverse flow

Location & surface projection

Tricuspid

R. atrioventricular valve

R./L. 5th intercostal space, near sternum

Pulmonary semilunar

R. ventricle  pulmonary trunk

L., 2nd intercostal space near sternum

Description of the Heart (Part 4)
description of the heart part 5
Bicuspid (mitral)

L. atrioventricular

L., 5th intercostal space in midclavicular line

Aortic semilunar

L. ventricle  aorta

R., 2nd intercostal space, near sternum

Great vessels of the Heart

Description of the Heart (Part 5)
description of the heart part 6
Inferior vena cava (IVC)

Coronary sinus

Superior vena cava (SVC)

Pulmonary trunk – Right ventricle

Pulmonary veins – Left atrium

Aorta – Left ventricle

Description of the Heart (Part 6)
cardiac conduction system part 1
Specialized myocardial cells

Autorhythmic

Pacemaker

Conduction system

Pacemaker cells set up basic rhythm of contractions

Conduction system coordinates contraction of myocardial fibers

Conduction system components

Sinoatrial (SA) node

In R. atrium near SVC opening

Primary pacemaker

Impulse transmits to AV node

Maintains rhythm of 60-100 bpm

Atrioentricular (AV) node

In interatrial septum

Secondary pacemaker

Impulse transmits to AV bundle

Cardiac Conduction System (Part 1)
the intrinsic conduction of the heart and succession of action potential through selected areas
The Intrinsic Conduction of the Heart and Succession of Action Potential Through Selected Areas
cardiac conduction system part 2
Sets basic rhythm if SA node is not functioning

Maintains rhythm of 40-50

Atrioventricular bundle (Bundle of His)

Electrically links atria to ventricles

In septa

Impulse transmits to bundle branches

Maintains rhythm of 20-40

R.&L. bundle branches

In interventricular septum

Impulses transmit to myoconduction fibers

Conduction myofibers (Pukinje fibers)

In ventricular walls

Impulses transmit to ventricular walls

Clinical applications

Artificial pacemakers

Bundle branch block

Complete

Right

Left

Cardiac Conduction System (Part 2)
cardiac cycle part 1
Events associated with one heart beat – Lasts about 0.8 sec

R. & L. sides

Acts simultaneously

Develop different pressures

Expel the same volume

Chambers fill passively

Atria contract while ventricles relax

Ventricles contract while atria relax

Systole – Contraction phase

Asystole – Relaxation phase

Phases

Relaxation (Quiescent) period

At end of heart beat – lasts about 0.4 sec

All 4 chambers relaxed – Pressure drops backflow of blood

Trapped by closing of semilunar cusps of vavles – Dicrotic notch

Cardiac Cycle (Part 1)
cardiac cycle part 2
All 4 valves closed – Isovolumetric relaxation

Ventricular pressure < atrial pressure – AV valves open

Ventricular filling

Rapid ventricular filling – Passive

Diastasis

Atrial systole – Final 30mL – 0.1 sec

End diastolic volume (EDV) – about 130 mL

Cardiac Cycle (Part 2)
cardiac cycle part 3
Ventricular systole

AV valves shut – 1st heart sound

All 4 valves closed – Isovolumetric contraction

Ventricular pressure rises

Semilunar valves open

Ventricular ejection – 0.5 sec

Semilunar valves close – 2nd heart sound

Systole begins

End systolic volume (ESV) – 60 mL

Stroke volume = EDV –ESV

Cardiac output = stroke volume x heart rate

Cardiac Cycle (Part 3)
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