Criminology
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 61

Criminology PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 115 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Criminology. Criminology is the study of the etiology of crime – what causes crime and why. To answer that question, we seek to detect crime and to measure it in all its dimensions: where, when, and why is it distributed in time and place where, when, how, why and who is committing it

Download Presentation

Criminology

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Criminology

Criminology

Criminology is the study of the etiology of crime – what

causes crime and why. To answer that question, we seek to

detect crime and to measure it in all its dimensions:

where, when, and why is it distributed in time and place

where, when, how, why and who is committing it

where when, how, why and who are the victims

Based on an assessment of that information, a response or a

treatment is prescribed in both a preventative and curative

context if possible. Criminology seeks epistemological

understanding so as to better prevent and respond to crime

in a social/communal context and to minimize its negative

Impacts.


Criminology preliminary thoughts

Criminology:Preliminary Thoughts

  • Macro differentiation/inter crime specificity

  • Micro differentiation/intra crime specificity

  • Causality vs. contributing, precipitating, accentuating, aggravating

  • Micro responses

  • Macro responses (risk factors; protective factors)


Micro responses

Micro Responses

Criminology assumes the medical model

(discover the problem, assess its nature and

extent, prescribe a response/a cure), but it falls

short because:

1. There are no accurate diagnostic instruments (no criminological thermometers, no criminological x-rays or CAT scans)

2. No body of diagnostic knowledge

3. No evidence-based, generally consistent, uniformly applicable and effective treatment modalities


Criminology preliminary thoughts1

Criminology:Preliminary Thoughts

  • Macro differentiation/inter crime specificity

  • Micro differentiation/intra crime specificity

  • Causality vs. contributing, precipitating, accentuating, aggravating

  • Micro responses

  • Macro responses (risk factors; protective factors)


Type 1 alpha error

Type 1 (Alpha Error)

It is impossible to speak of one specific

cause for the wide range of behavior

classified as criminal

  • Macro

  • Micro


Type ii beta error

Type II (Beta Error)

You cannot call something a cause of an

event if it rarely produces the event. Many

factors impact in a non-causal context, and

would more appropriately be called:

  • Contributing factors

  • Precipitating factors

  • Accentuating factors

  • Aggravating factors

  • Compounding factors


Type iii error

Type III Error

Criminology, like medicine, assumes

conformity and seeks to explain deviance.

Perhaps we should assume deviance and

explain conformity.

- Why do nearly all people, nearly all the

time, refrain from crime?

- What is the cause of virtue?

- How does society build a citizenry of

character?


Kohlberg model

Kohlberg Model

Level 1 – Fear of Punishment

Level 2 – Promise of Reward

Level 3 – Altruistic Motivation


Socrates and the ring of gyges

Socrates and the Ring of Gyges

Justice will be realized only when people

are willing to obey the unenforceable.


Scientific criminology

Scientific Criminology

An interdisciplinary social science-based

field of study that seeks an etiological

understanding of the preventative and

curative aspects of crime. In so doing, it

seeks to develop better measurement and

diagnostic capabilities and ultimately, better

preventative, control, and treatment options.


Political criminology

Political Criminology

Science is constrained due to deep-rooted

social, economic, and political factors (ala Dr.

Goldberger). There are scientific truths and

there are political truths. In the end, political

“leaders” look not to the science, but to the

political palatability coefficient, to the political

truths, to survive. As a result, the science of

criminology is regularly polluted by the

politics of criminology.


Role of criminologists

Role of Criminologists

Criminologists and justice professionals must:

  • Uncover scientific truths/grow the body of knowledge.

  • Be alert as to when the best time would be to bring results forward (be attuned to the zeitgeist).

  • Engage in activities that create a palatable environment/create a setting where truths can be aired and implemented.


Theories of deviance

Theories of Deviance

I.) Demonological Theories

1.) Traditional ‑ Augustine, Gregory I, Gregory VII,

Jerome

2.) Pre‑Classical ‑ Aquinas, Luther, Machiavelli

3.) Social Contract ‑ Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Voltaire


Theories of deviance1

Theories of Deviance

I.) Demonological Theories

1.) Traditional ‑ Augustine, Gregory I, Gregory VII,

Jerome

2.) Pre‑Classical ‑ Aquinas, Luther, Machiavelli

3.) Social Contract ‑ Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Voltaire

II.) Naturalistic Theories

1.) Classical ‑ Beccaria, Bentham, Blackstone, Burke


Classical theory

Classical Theory

Crime is to be prevented through fear of

receiving sanctions. There are some costs

(innocent punished), but we must avert chaos

and maintain security, and these are the

collateral consequences.

There is crime because the state lacks certainty

and severity in its punishment delivery

systems. To stop crime, we need more police,

prosecutors, and prisons.


Classical theory1

Classical Theory

1. Self determinism

2. Security the over-riding concern; must avoid chaos at all costs (Utilitarian theory)

3. Deterrence theory/Rational Man Theory

4. Focus on the crime


General deterrence theory

General Deterrence Theory

  • Specific vs. General

  • Swiftness

  • Certainty

  • Severity

  • Clarity

    Severity is not a substitute for certainty


Theories of deviance2

Theories of Deviance

I.) Demonological Theories

1.) Traditional ‑ Augustine, Gregory I, Gregory VII,

Jerome

2.) Pre‑Classical ‑ Aquinas, Luther, Machiavelli

3.) Social Contract ‑ Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Voltaire

II.) Naturalistic Theories

1.) Classical ‑ Beccaria, Bentham, Blackstone, Burke

2.) Positivist ‑ Lombroso, Quetelet, Comte

A. Biological Determinism ‑ Galton, Lombroso

1. Constitutional ‑ Gall, Goring, Hooton, Jacobs, Sheldon

2. Bio Social ‑ Hippchen, Jeffrey, Edward O. Wilson


Bio criminology continued

Bio-Criminology…continued

  • Why are there bio-chemical imbalances?

    • Internally sourced factors:

      • Enzyme/hormonal imbalances

      • Genetic sources

      • Insufficient brain development/brain abnormalities

    • Externally sourced factors:

      • Exposure to externally sourced toxic materials

      • General nutrition/vitamin deficiencies (orthomolecular deficiencies)


Bio criminology

Bio-Criminology

  • Internal/Latent Bio-Chemical Imbalances

    (hormone and enzyme imbalances)

    • Serotonin

    • Dopamine

    • Melatonin

    • Testosterone

    • MAOA

    • Estrogen/PMS

    • CSF/serum albumin

    • Phenethylamine/MAO-B

    • Oxytocin


Bio criminology continued1

Bio-Criminology…continued

  • Genes

    • Violence genes, lying genes, crime genes, morality genes, alcoholism genes, religiousity genes?

    • Impulsivity and ADHD (attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder) are perhaps 75% genetically based

    • Variations in the AR gene are associated with violent crime

    • Caspi and Trembly studies


Bio criminology continued2

Bio-Criminology…continued

  • Caspi study

    • abused/insufficient nurturing + genetically vulnerable =

      85% developed anti-social behaviors

    • abused/insufficient nurturing + no genetic vulnerability =

      virtually no anti-social tendencies

    • not abused/sufficient nurturing + genetic vulnerability =

      virtually no anti-social tendencies


Bio criminology continued3

Bio-Criminology…continued

Behavior Impacted By

(Trembly thesis is that the 66% figure will drop even further as time passes)


Bio criminology continued4

Bio-Criminology…continued

  • Insufficient brain development/brain abnormalities

    • Reactive Aggressive Teens: high Amygdala activity and less frontal lobe activity

    • Pedophiles: lower volume of gray matter in the orbitofrontal cortex, the cerebellum and the ventral striatum

    • Pedophiles: abnormal serotonin subsystem in the brain

    • Men v Women: low volume of gray matter in the orbitofrontal cortex is highly correlated with violent and anti-social behaviors; in the aggregate, men have lower volumes than women

    • Antisocial individuals: damage in the dorsal and ventral prefrontal cortex and angular gyrus


Bio criminology continued5

Bio-Criminology…continued

  • Insufficient brain development/brain abnormalities …continued:

    • High norm compliance individuals: high activity in the lateral orbitofrontal cortex and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (areas not developed until early 20s)

    • Violent offenders: large white matter volume in the occipital, parietal lobes and left cerebellum; large gray matter volume in the right cerebellum

    • Violent offenders: atrophy in the postcentral gyri, frontopolar cortex and orbiofrontal cortex

    • Youth Brain Shrinkage: frontal and pre-frontal cortex shrinkage

    • Violent youth: slower neurological transmission issues

    • Novelty seeking individuals: fast firing dopamine neurons in the brain

    • Prenatal alcohol exposure: alters white matter structure in the frontal and occipital lobes


Bio criminology continued6

Bio-Criminology…continued

  • Externally Sourced Causes of Bio-Chemical Imbalances

    • Lead, cadmium, mercury, PCBs (heavy metals)

    • Sugar/hypoglycemia

    • Manganese

    • HCD (hexachlorobenzene)

    • Prenatal nicotine exposure


Bio criminology continued7

Bio-Criminology…continued

  • Nutritional Deficiencies/Orthomolecular Deficiencies

    • General vitamin and nutritional deficiencies

    • Prenatal protein deficiencies

    • Cholesterol deficiencies

    • Zinc deficiencies

    • Fatty acid deficiencies (Omega 3, Omega 6, DHA)

    • Iron deficiencies

    • Vitamin B and Chromium deficiencies


Bio criminology continued8

Bio-Criminology…continued

  • How do we respond?

    • Eat healthy substances/orthomolecular therapy (take good things in)

    • Eat substances that will remove the toxic substances from the body (get the bad things out)

    • Move away from toxic sources (don’t let any more bad things in)

    • Bio-chemical interventions in serious cases

      • Ritalin

      • Rebuifin

      • Lithium

      • Thorazine

      • Metoprolol

      • Galvanic skin implants

      • Depo-Provera/MPA


Bio criminology summary

Bio-criminology Summary

  • Crime is caused by bio-chemical imbalances. These imbalances have:

    • Internally sourced origins:

      • Enzyme/hormonal imbalances

      • Genetic sources

      • Insufficient brain development/brain abnormalities

    • Externally sourced origins:

      • Exposure to externally sourced toxic materials

      • General nutrition/vitamin deficiencies (orthomolecular

        deficiencies)

  • To reduce crime, we need to:

    • Take good things in

    • Get the bad things out

    • Don’t let anymore bad things in

    • Engage in physical interventions and drug therapy in serious cases


Bio criminology problems

Bio-Criminology Problems

  • Ignores the Constitution

  • Ignores Durkheim (society of clones)

  • Ignores Durkheim (faulty intelligence to crime assumption)

  • Alpha error (explains violence, but little else)

  • Extreme potential for abuse


Theories of deviance3

Theories of Deviance

I.) Demonological Theories

1.) Traditional ‑ Augustine, Gregory I, Gregory VII,

Jerome

2.) Pre‑Classical ‑ Aquinas, Luther, Machiavelli

3.) Social Contract ‑ Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau, Voltaire

II.) Naturalistic Theories

1.) Classical ‑ Beccaria, Bentham, Blackstone, Burke

2.) Positivist ‑ Lombroso, Quetelet, Comte

A. Biological Determinism ‑ Galton, Lombroso

1. Constitutional ‑ Gall, Goring, Hooton, Jacobs, Sheldon

2. Bio Social ‑ Hippchen, Jeffrey, Edward O. Wilson

B. Cultural Determinism ‑ Quetelet

1. Psychological ‑ Tarde

a. Cognitive Theory ‑ James, Menninger, Piaget

b. Freudian Theory/Psychoanalysis ‑ Freud, Jung

c. Learning Theory ‑ Bandura, Skinner


Theories of deviance continued

Theories of Deviance…continued

2. Sociological ‑ Durkheim, Ferri

a. Social Structure Theories ‑ Burgess

1. Culture Conflict ‑ Miller, Sellin

2. Differential Opportunity ‑ Cloward, Ohlin

3. Relative Deprivation ‑ Blau and Blau

4. Social Disorganization ‑ McKay, Shaw, Thrasher

5. Strain ‑ Agnew, Merton

6. Subculture Conflict ‑ Cohen


Theories of deviance continued1

Theories of Deviance…continued

2. Sociological ‑ Durkheim, Ferri

a. Social Structure Theories ‑ Burgess

1. Culture Conflict ‑ Miller, Sellin

2. Differential Opportunity ‑ Cloward, Ohlin

3. Relative Deprivation ‑ Blau and Blau

4. Social Disorganization ‑ McKay, Shaw, Thrasher

5. Strain ‑ Agnew, Merton

6. Subculture Conflict ‑ Cohen

b. Social Process Theories ‑ Sutherland

1. Bonding ‑ Hindelang, Hirschi

2. Control - Durkheim, Gottfredson, Hirschi, Reckless

3. Differential Anticipation ‑ Glazer

4. Differential Association ‑ Cressy, Sutherland

5. Differential Reinforcement ‑ Akers

6. Drift ‑ Matza, Sykes

7. Labeling ‑ Allport, Braithwaite, Lemert, Rosenthal

8. Life Course - Laub, Moffitt, Sampson

9. Social Development ‑ Weis


Positivist theory problems

Positivist Theory Problems

  • Labeling stigmatization

  • Medical model knowledge base lacking:

    a. Diagnostic instruments

    b. Body of diagnostic knowledge

    c. Consistent/applicable/effective treatment

    modalities

  • External factors (prisonization)

  • Re-habilitation


Positivist theory problems continued

Positivist Theory Problems…continued

  • Transferability

  • Limited exposure

  • Too late

  • Constancy dictum

  • Nihil Nocere


Palmer and gendreau

Palmer and Gendreau

  • Not enough research to date.

  • Same rate of success as oncologists.

  • A life-long cure not reasonable and not expected in medicine in particular.

  • The need for inter-crime and intra-crime specificity only now beginning to be realized.

  • The problem is often not the program, but implementation issues.

  • Internal motivation/cognitive orientation of the individual. Need an internal conversion.


Rehabilitation program implementation needs

Rehabilitation ProgramImplementation Needs

  • Internal conversion of the treated (fertile ground)

  • Proper timing/Zeitgeist (palatable environment)

  • Good program (good seed)

  • Capable program personnel (knowledgeable and skilled farmer)

  • Dedicated and persistent program personnel

    If any one of these is missing, the program

    fails/the crops fail.


Theories of deviance continued2

Theories of Deviance…continued

3.) Conflict ‑ Marx

A. Class Conflict ‑ Bonger, Vold

B. Economic Determinism ‑ Becker, Ehrlich, Mayr, Stigler

C. Radical ‑ Chambliss, Quinney, Turk, Young


Some fundamental concepts regarding law and crime

Some Fundamental ConceptsRegarding Law and Crime

  • Every society is based on the coercion of some of its members by others.

  • Law is a function of political power. It is used by the more powerful to maintain control over the less powerful. The more threatened a ruling group feels, the more rigorously it tends to enforce the law.

  • Laws are the codification of ruling class interests. Laws become legitimate simply because the ruling class has the power to enforce them and the ability to create the ideology by which they are made to appear justified.

  • The police, the courts and the correctional systems are all instruments utilized by the ruling class to insure adherence to their laws.

  • People who are socio-economically close to the power group tend to develop normative behavioral systems that are similar to members of the power group. The further away a person is from the power group, the more likely they will possess different normative behavioral systems, and the greater the likelihood that those different behaviors will be defined as criminal.


Radical criminological theory

Radical Criminological Theory

  • Capitalism is the root of all crime and needs to be abandoned as an economic system.

  • Restructure society, moving toward a classless, utopian, socialistic state.

  • The restructuring may require a revolution.

  • Tear down the prisons.

  • Abolish police forces.

  • Adopt a non-interventionist strategy


Some fundamental concepts regarding law and crime1

Some Fundamental ConceptsRegarding Law and Crime

  • Crime is not an inherent quality of any act. All behavior patterns in fact have the potential to be defined as criminal. Criminality is merely a label given to certain behaviors by the ruling authorities.

  • The ability to confer criminal status is a privilege enjoyed by the powerful classes, to the broad detriment of the less powerful. Generally, criminal behavior is merely behavior that threatens the interests of the powerful.

  • Law and definitions of crime may be modified from time to time, but never to the extent that existing political and economic relationships are jeopardized. As a rule, law changes are a reflection of changes in the needs and interests of the powerful.

  • The freedoms that laws confer grant a great deal more freedom to some groups than to others. The freedoms allegedly protected by law, are only protected for those who can afford it. In the end, legal efficacy reigns supreme, not the law.

  • Rather than being an independent arbitrator of conflict, the state is in fact the prize for which different groups compete in order to gain control.


Radical criminology problems

Radical Criminology Problems

  • Ignores Durkheim (after the revolution there will still be deviance, just new definitions)

  • There is a value to deviance

  • High cost of the revolution, and it would ironically be born by the very people it is suppose to help.

  • Capitalism is the root of much crime, but not the root of all crime.

  • Give no insight into how deviances arises initially.


Values of deviance

Values of Deviance

  • Catalyst for change and progress.

  • Forces a re-examination and modification of values and behaviors.

  • Redistributes opportunities for leadership.

  • Refines the truth (forces opposing parties to better prepare).

  • Promotes community cohesion by drawing people together in mutual condemnation

  • Responses to deviance inculcates values into society.

  • Removes bureaucratic red tape/provides for quicker responses.


Values of deviance1

Values of Deviance

Without deviance, we would be a society of

clones, incapable of dealing with the

variation around us. Diversity is mandatory

to confront the tumultuous, ever changing

world in which we live. The question, is how

what types of deviance should be allowed,

and how much?


Capitalism and crime

Capitalism and Crime

Crime is a natural by-product of capitalism, like automobile exhaust. It is an

inevitable artifact. Why?

A. Unemployment:

1. Capitalism by its very nature does not yield stability but rather volatility. We

often talk of business cycles in a very detached fashion, but business cycles

means, there are times when people will be out of work. The cyclical nature of

capitalism with its risk-based orientations, results in economic instability and

periodic unemployment.

2. Capitalism needs a core number of people to be unemployed for two reasons:

a. Some number of unemployed people are needed as a threat, to potentially

take over the jobs if workers threaten to quit due to low wage and working

condition concerns.

b. Some number of unemployed people are needed to turn to in times of peak production needs.

The optimum unemployment rate from the capitalist point of view is thought to be

roughly 3% - 4%. In a nation of roughly 500 million workers, that is 15 million – 20

million people unemployed, and with unemployment comes crime, for a variety of

reasons.


Capitalism and crime1

Capitalism and Crime

  • Capitalism results in a small number of people accumulating great wealth and others, a large number, living in or near poverty levels. Capitalism, and particularly un-regulated and un-controlled capitalism, yields a large socio-economic inequity coefficient. Nations with a high socio-economic inequity coefficient have high property and violent crime rates.

  • The basic econometrics of business results in workers being paid less than what is necessary for them to buy all of the goods and services they need in life, let alone to be able buy the things they are told to buy by the capitalist marketers, so many resort to illegitimate means to make ends meet.

  • Planned obsolescence

  • Conspicuous consumption

  • Monopolistic tendencies


Capitalism and crime2

Capitalism and Crime

Capitalism seeks monopolies and exploits the

poor. By very definition, many lack the capital

needed to obtain basic needs and wants.

When wealth is equated with success, the

problem becomes more acute. Crime is

normal in a society that stresses wealth and

simultaneously restricts legitimate

opportunity to acquire it. The market culture

accentuates the crime problem.


Bureaucratic gravitation phenomenon

Bureaucratic Gravitation Phenomenon

Every program and proposal carries within it

a potential for failure and abuse, equal and

opposite to the program’s potential for

success.


Theories of deviance continued3

Theories of Deviance…continued

3.) Conflict ‑ Marx

A. Class Conflict ‑ Bonger, Vold

B. Economic Determinism ‑ Becker, Ehrlich, Mayr, Stigler

C. Radical ‑ Chambliss, Quinney, Turk, Young

4.) Neo‑Classical ‑ Van den Haag, DiIulio, James Q. Wilson


Neo classical theory

Neo-Classical Theory

There is crime because the state lacks certainty

and severity in its punishment delivery

systems. To stop crime, we need more police,

prosecutors, and prisons.

Crime is to be prevented through fear of

receiving sanctions. There are some costs

(innocent punished), but we must avert chaos

and maintain security, and these are the necessary

and acceptable collateral consequences.


Classical theory2

Classical Theory

1. Self determinism

2. Security the over-riding concern; must avoid chaos at all costs (Utilitarian theory)

3. Deterrence theory/Rational Man Theory

4. Focus on the crime


Crime control vs due process

Crime Control vs. Due Process

Crime Control Model Due Process Model

Aggravates long-term stability Aggravates short term contingencies

Apprehend the guilty Protect the innocent

Assumes deviance and explains conformity Assumes conformity and explains deviance

Authoritarian, trained police Social service, educated police

Burden of proof on defense to demonstrate Burden of proof on prosecutor to demonstrate

innocence at beyond reasonable doubt guilt at reasonable doubt

Closed bureaucratic justice structures Open, linking-pin justice structures

Corporal punishment Non-interventionist treatment

Criminal intent of little concern Criminal intent of an overriding concern

Discretionary power to police and Discretionary power to judicial and

prosecutorial officials correctional officials

Emphasis on efficiency Emphasis on effectiveness

Emphasis on training Emphasis on education

Few confession extraction guidelines Completely voluntary confessions

Few search and seizure rules Strict search and seizure rules

Frequent use of the death penalty Abolition of the death penalty

Harm, frighten, scare, intimidate Encourage, help, aid, assist

Harms innocent persons Allows known guilty to go free

Harsh sentences Lenient sentences

High certainty of apprehension/justice system Low certainty of apprehension/justice system

processing processing

Large, demeaning prisons Community-based corrections


Crime control vs due process1

Crime Control vs. Due Process

Crime Control Model Due Process Model

Large private sector police force Small private sector police force

Legal counsel provided on rare occasions Legal counsel provided as a right at all stages

Maintain the status quo Respond to social inequities

Mandatory, determinate sentencing Indeterminate sentencing

Many law enforcement officers Few law enforcement officers

Many penalties Few penalties

Maximize level of offender intrusion into system Minimize level of offender intrusion into system

National, centrally organized police force Local, autonomous, decentralized police force

No pretrial discovery for defense Unlimited pretrial discovery for defense

Plea bargaining emphasis Complete adjudication

Presumption of guilt Presumption of innocence

Preventive deterrence policy Curative rehabilitation policy

Protect society from evolutionary change Protect society from revolutionary change

Protect society in the short run Protect society in the long run

Punish the guilty Protect the innocent

Punishment fits the crime Punishment fits the criminal

Quick, informal justice Formalized, individualized justice

Rational, economic man theory Crime a psycho-sociological entity

Social order Individual liberty

Supervision of offenders Advocate of offenders

Swift, certain punishment Treatment, but only when needed


Classical theory3

Classical Theory

1. Self determinism

2. Security the over-riding concern; must avoid chaos at all costs (Utilitarian theory)

3. Deterrence theory/Rational Man Theory

4. Focus on the crime


General deterrence theory1

General Deterrence Theory

  • Specific vs General

  • Swiftness

  • Certainty

  • Severity

  • Clarity

    Severity is not a substitute for certainty


Neo classical problems

Neo-Classical Problems

1. Pragmatic logistic limitation of low certainty.

2. Human rights concerns - macro.

3. Human rights concerns – micro

4. Certainty/Severity Reciprocity Phenomenon

5. Inherent irrationality of some behavior

a. Temporary insanity/acts of ration vs. acts of

passion

b. Permanent Mental illness

c. Aware of the odds of capture/punishment

1. worth the cost

2. have a death wish

3. excited by the challenge


Neo classical problems1

Neo-Classical Problems

6. Displacement:

a. geographic location

b. nature/substantive offense

c. offender

7. Pragmatic operational limitation

8. Overkill phenomenon

9. Overthrust irony

10. Potential for abuse


Theories of deviance continued4

Theories of Deviance…continued

3.) Conflict ‑ Marx

A. Class Conflict ‑ Bonger, Vold

B. Economic Determinism ‑ Becker, Ehrlich, Mayr, Stigler

C. Radical ‑ Chambliss, Quinney, Turk, Young

4.) Neo‑Classical ‑ Van den Haag, DiIulio, James Q. Wilson

5.) Chaos - Lorenz, Poincare, Walker


Chaos theory

Chaos Theory

  • Casual links are so obscure, so convoluted, that the outcomes appears to be random, serendipitous chance. The causal links are there, but they are so enmeshed and entangled, we cannot figure it out.

  • Small, seemingly innocuous, insignificant events can have a tremendous impact on event trajectory.

  • Small differences in the initial stage in particular, at the starting point if you would, can result in significant long-term outcomes variation.

  • Ensemble forecasting


Concluding points

Concluding Points

  • Inter and intra specificity

  • Death and crime analogy

  • Scientific criminology is still in the late 1700s in a medical analogy context

  • Spending very little on research

  • Implementation problems

  • Nilhil nocere

  • Political criminology vs. Scientific criminology


  • Login