Approaches and methods
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APPROACHES AND METHODS. IN LANGUAGE TEACHING. Why do we study approaches and methods?. Provide teachers with a view of how the field of language teaching has evolved-developed. As a source of well-used practices (adapt and implement)

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Why do we study approaches and methods?

  • Provide teachers with a view of how the field of language teaching has evolved-developed.

  • As a source of well-used practices (adapt and implement)

  • Basic teaching skills are learned and teaching experience is developed

Elements of method

  • Approach

  • Design

  • Procedure


  • Theories about the nature of language and the nature of language learning that serve as the source of practices and principles in language teaching.

  • Theoretical principles

  • Basic features of linguistic organization and language use

Theory of language:Three basic theoretical views of language

  • Structural view : Language is a system of structurally related elements for the coding of meaning.

    The target of language learning is the mastery of this system;

    - phonological units: phonemes

    - grammatical units: clauses, phrases, sentences

    - grammatical operations : adding, shifting, joining

    - lexical items : function words, structure words

Basic theoretical views

  • Functional view: language is a vehicle for the expression of functional meaning.

    It emphasizes the semantic and communicative dimension

    The learner needs to communicate about

    ESP movement begins with a functional account of learner needs

Basic theoretical views

Interactional view; language is a realization and interpersonal relations and for the performance of social transactions between individuals.

  • Maintenance of social relations

  • Interaction analysis

  • Information of interest to both speaker and listener in a situation of importance to both

Theory of language learning

  • The psycho-linguistic and cognitive processes involved in language learning

  • The conditions that need to be met in order for these learning processes to be activated

Design – the level of method analysis

  • Objectives of a method

    Primary focus on:

    vocabulary, grammar, speaking, listening, culture

  • Syllabus model the method incorporates

    • criteria for the selection and organization of linguistic or subject matter content

    • Basic syllabus types

      Structural, situational, topical, functional, notional, skills based, task based

Design – the level of method analysis

  • Types of learning and teaching activities

    eg. dialogues

    responding to commands

    group problem solving

    information-exchange activities


    question and answer


Design – the level of method analysis

  • Learner roles

    • they plan their own learning program

    • they monitor and evaluate their own progress

    • they learn interacting with others

    • they tutor other learners

    • they learn from the teachers and other sources

    • The view of the learner as a processor, performer, initiator, problem solver

Design – the level of method analysis

  • Teacher roles

    • types of functions teachers fulfill

    • degree of teacher influence over learning

    • degree to which the teacher determines the context of learning

    • Types of interaction between teachers and learners

Design – the level of method analysis

  • Role of instructional materials

    • primary function of materials

    • The form materials take (books, videos, audios)

    • Relation of materials to other input

    • Assumptions made about teaches and materials

Elements of method

  • Procedure : classroom techniques, practices and behaviors observed when the method is used

  • Resources in terms of time, space and equipment used by the teacher

  • Interactional patterns observed in lessons

  • Tactics and strategies used by teachers and learners

Approaches and Methods

  • Is there anything worth in this technique?

  • How can I adopt this technique to my own circumstances?

  • What are the other ways I can put this principle into practice?

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