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MULTIPLE & MIXED METHODS APPROACHES. Diunduh dari:…… 23/9/2012. PERBANDINGAN. Diunduh dari: …… 23/9/2012. PARADIGMA KE TIGA.

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Diunduh dari:…… 23/9/2012


Diunduh dari: …… 23/9/2012

paradigma ke tiga

Diunduh dari: …… 23/9/2012


Diunduh dari: …… 23/9/2012

risiko dalam menggunakan mm

Diunduh dari: …… 23/9/2012

tipologi riset mm

Diunduh dari: …… 23/9/2012


Diunduh dari: …… 23/9/2012


Diunduh dari: …… 23/9/2012

tipologi riset mm1

Diunduh dari: …… 23/9/2012


Tujuan integrasi

Tujuan desain MM

Diunduh dari: …… 23/9/2012

perkembangan selama 20 tahun terakhir
Perkembanganselama 20 tahunterakhir
  • Increasing interest in and advocacy for mixed methods
  • Evolving understanding of what is mixed methods research
  • Developing designs and innovative techniques
  • “The emergence of mixed methods as a third methodological movement in the social and behavioral sciences began during the 1980’s.” (Tashakkori & Teddlie, 2003: 697)

Diunduh dari:  22/9/2912

perkembangan mma
Perkembangan MMA

“Combining qualitative and quantitative

methods has gained broad appeal in

public health research.” (1999)

Mentioned several

approaches for combining

qualitative and

quantitative research

Advanced considerations for deciding

what model to use (literature

available, prior studies,

realistic design, expertise)

Suggested to describe each

method thoroughly

Diunduh dari:  22/9/2912



Diunduh dari:  22/9/2912


A New Journal


Devoted to Mixed Methods:

Fieldwork Quality and Quantity Mixed Method Approaches

Editors: John W. Creswell

and Abbas Tashakkori

Managing Editor: Vicki L.

Plano Clark

Email: [email protected]

Diunduh dari:  22/9/2912

international conferences
International Conferences
  • Mixed Methods Conference, Cambridge, England, July 21-24, 2008
  • Proposed mixed methods conference, Sydney, Australia, 2009
  • Discipline conferences with mixed methods papers

Diunduh dari:  22/9/2912

kritik pakar creswell 2007
KritikPakar(Creswell, 2007)
  • Is there a post-positivist leaning to mixed methods?
    • Howe, K. R. (2004). A critique of experimentalism. Qualitative Inquiry, 10, 42-61.
    • Giddings, L. S. (2006). Mixed-methods research: Positivism dressed in drag? Journal of Research in Nursing, 11(3), 195-2003.
    • Holmes, C. A. (2007). Mixed(up) methods, methodology and interpretive frameworks. Contributed paper for the Mixed Methods Conference, Cambridge, University, July 10-12, 2006.
  • What are the limits for mixed methods research?
    • Sale, J. E. M., Lohfeld, L. H., Brazil, K. (2002). Revisiting the quantitative-qualitative debate: Implications for mixed-methods research. Quality and Quantity, 36, 43-53.
    • Leahey, E. (2007). Convergence and confidentiality? Limits to the implementation of mixed methodology. Social Science Research, 36, 149-158.
  • Is there a dominant discourse in mixed methods research?
    • Freshwater, D. (2007). Reading mixed methods research: Contexts for criticism. Journal of Mixed Methods Research, 1(2), 134-146.

Diunduh dari:  22/9/2912

mmr tidak berbeda dengan metode lainnya

Identifying a research problem

Reviewing the literature

Identifying a purpose and stating questions

Views of knowledge


Collecting data

Analyzing and interpreting data

Reporting and evaluating the study

Diunduh dari:  22/9/2912

mixed methods di dalam designs
Mixed Methods didalam Designs




Case Study Research

Narrative research

Qual ----- Quan

Qual----- Quan


Qual---- Quan

Diunduh dari:  22/9/2912

istilah istilah yang populer
Istilah-istilah yang Populer
  • Multi-method
  • Triangulation
  • Integrated
  • Combined
  • Quantitative and qualitative methods
  • Multi-methodology
  • Mixed methodology
  • Mixed-method
  • Mixed research
  • Mixed methods

Diunduh dari:  22/9/2912

bagaimana mencampur nya

Data Konvergen:




Connect data:




Embed the data:

Quan data

Qual data

Diunduh dari:  22/9/2912

mengapa mencampur
  • Validity – to corroborate quan and qual data
  • Offset – offset weaknesses of quan and qual and draw on strengths
  • Completeness – more comprehensive account that qual or quan alone
  • Process – quan provides outcomes; qual, the processes
  • Explanation – qual can explain quan results or vice-versa
  • Unexpected results – surprising results from one, other explains
  • Instrument development – qual employed to design instrument
  • Credibility – both approaches enhance integrity of findings
  • Context – qual provides context; quan provides general.
  • Utility – more useful to practitioners

Diunduh dari:  22/9/2912

single paradigm ke 3
“Single” Paradigm Ke -3
  • Pragmatism (Tashakkori & Teddlie, 2003)
    • Focus on research question
    • What “works,” consequences
    • Multiple methods – large toolkit
  • Transformative (Mertens, 2003)
    • Transform lives of under represented, marginalized groups
    • Incorporate this focus into all phases of research

Diunduh dari:  22/9/2912

perkembangan designs dan teknik teknik inovatif
Perkembangan Designs danTeknik-teknikInovatif

Key Developments

  • Notation
  • Typologies
  • Diagrams of procedures
  • Complex evaluation models
  • Reconceptualizing designs
  • Emergence of innovations in procedures
    • Unusual blends
    • Methodological issues
    • Data analysis techniques
    • Presentation techniques

Diunduh dari:  22/9/2912

preliminary design considerations morse 1991
Preliminary Design Considerations (Morse, 1991)



Diunduh dari:  22/9/2912


Parsimonious Designs (Creswell & Plano Clark, 2007)

QUANPre-test Data & Results

QUANPost-test Data & Results




QUANData & Results

QUALData & Results


Concurrent Mixed Methods Designs

Triangulation Design

Embedded Design

Diunduh dari:  22/9/2912


Sequential Designs - Mixed Methods Designs

qualData & Results

QUANData & Results


Following up

quanData & Results

QUALData & Results


Building to




After-intervention qual


Explanatory Design

Exploratory Design

Sequential Embedded Design

Diunduh dari:  22/9/2912

pemikiran pentingnya mm
Pemikiranpentingnya ... MM..
  • Combinations of methods that could be chosen
  • The epistemological and ontological implications of what is chosen
  • The practicalities of carrying out the research
  • How the data are going to be brought together (lack of theory?)
  • Tensions between approaches and methods
apakah kita memahami
  • Multiple Method Research Designs (MMRD)
      • Multi-method designs -1+ method within paradigms
      • Mixed methods designs -1+ method mixed paradigms
      • Combining methods – 1+ method, one subsumed to other?
      • Integrating methods – 1+ method of equal weight?
      • Triangulation – outcome of MMRD?*
      • Data transformation
          • Quantitized data
          • Qualitized data
mengapa kita lakukan
  • Emic and etic understandings?
  • Multiple research questions?
  • Multiple facets or contexts
  • Multiple of singular reality?
  • Mixed phenomena?
bagaimana kita melakukannya
  • Sequential or parallel?
  • Linked or independent?
  • Respondent enrolment
  • Development of research instruments
  • Time required
  • Costs – value for money?
  • Necessary expertise?
  • Team organisation and communication
penanganan data
Penanganan Data
  • Where’s your theory? How does that help?
  • Assumptions and presumptions – negotiating a path through/round them
  • Integration; triangulation; combination?
  • When are you going to integrate? Have you missed the moment?
  • Will your audience understand?
possible tensions
Possible tensions?
  • Methodological
      • Differing findings
      • Unit of analysis
  • Political
      • Preference/requirements of ‘audiences’
  • Practical
      • Time
      • Money
      • Age of data
memperkuat pemahaman tentang
  • Multi-faceted nature of all phenomena
  • Contextuality
  • Micro-meso-macro dimensions / relationships
  • Agency and structure
topik kerentanan vulnerability
Topik “Kerentanan” = VULNERABILITY
  • Essentialist approaches
  • Constructionist approaches
  • Fixed state/status
  • Contextual and fluid
  • An inherent weakness or something managed and negotiated?
  • Children and vulnerability
pendekatan metoda tunggal
PendekatanMetoda Tunggal?
  • Which one and why that?
  • Insufficient for some purposes
    • eg Policy development
  • Cannot elaborate micro-meso-macro interfaces and relationships
  • Structure and agency
  • Some presumptions are problematic
mm multiple mixed methods
MM: Multiple / Mixed Methods
  • Multi-dimensional phenomenon
    • Access via different methods derived from an interpretivist stance
    • Can explore contingency and dynamic aspects
    • Draw on emic and etic conceptualisations to plan a strong design for mixed methods
    • Can explore structural relationships and agency/structure interfaces
etika data sekunder dan pertanyaan riset
Etika Data SekunderdanPertanyaanRiset
    • Census data
    • National data sets (eg GHS)
    • National statistical returns (eg Crime statistics for HO)
    • Published research findings
    • Local surveys (primary data)
    • Local statistics (secondary/primary data)
    • Limited data about children
  • Pertanyaan Penelitian
    • Specific (hypotheses)
    • Determined at start by outside ‘experts’/prior research
    • Limited by what is available eg area; analysis unit
contoh etika pertanyaan tentang kerentanan
Contoh : EtikaPertanyaantentang “Kerentanan”

The example of children and non-domestic violence

  • Area level: ‘risky’ areas?
      • Deprived areas (IMD measurements): are high crime rates against children associated with neighbourhood levels of deprivation?
  • Individual level: vulnerable people?
      • Are children more or less vulnerable to non-domestic violence than other age groups?
      • How does this vary by (eg) age, ethnicity, gender, imputed social class, household income?
relevansi mm
Relevansi MM ?
  • Children are often seen as inherently vulnerable
  • Particularly the case in policy terms
  • Indirect challenge from sociology of childhood
    • Agency ; social actors
    • But ambivalence about children as vulnerable members of society
pendekatan mm
Pendekatan MM
  • Interested in the different ways in which children might construct, explain and experience vulnerability
  • Theoretical integration with macro level understandings of children as vulnerable
  • Children aged between 10 and 18, living at home with at least one parent
mm terintegrasi
  • No predetermined definition of vulnerability
  • Interviews to explore how they conceptualised vulnerability and how they responded to it
  • Photo-elicitation and video-journey interviews in addition
  • Focus here on integrated findings for non-domestic safety and vulnerability
theorising the integrated findings
Theorising the integrated findings
  • Vulnerability emerges as contextual to the social worlds of the participants
  • Reflects the ways in which children/young people are positioned between structures which constrain their actions on the basis of their age, and their own desires, opportunities, and abilities to be (relatively) autonomous social actors
  • Vulnerability is a site around which the relationship between their structural position in their families, and in society more generally, and their status as social actors is played out
perkembangan lanjut
  • Using a mixed methods approach
    • Interface between micro and macro dimensions of physical safety, distributions of risk, violence
    • Would need primary data to capture distributions of management strategies
proses integrasi
  • Mengkombinasikan metode/data/analysis sedemikian rupa sehingga:
    • Mereka membentuk satu kesatuan
    • Menjaga sifat0sifat paradigmatiknya masing-masing (tidak mencampur-adukkan satu-sama lain)
    • Menghasilkan kontribusi yang sama nilainya
alternatif integrasi
  • Integrasi sejak awal riset
  • Selama pengumpulan data
  • Melalui Analisis Data
  • Melalui Interpretasi
  • Sebagai hasil Presentasi
mmr mixed methods research


A style of research that uses procedures for conducting research that are typically applied in both quantitative and qualitative studies

Diunduh dari:…… 21/9/2012

multimethod research


The purpose of these studies is usually to inform sponsors about a program they are funding.

The sponsors may want a descriptive study  of the program in which the operations and processes are explained and clarified.

They may also be interested in an effectiveness study  in which the operations are assessed in relation to organizational goals and targets.

Finally, a sponsor may fund a  policy study  to make recommendations to future policy decision-makers.

Diunduh dari:…… 21/9/2012

m m r
. M.M.R.


The research problem itself determines the choice of a design, but any of the methods below areavailable to the researcher:


Site visits.




Quantitative data.

Diunduh dari:…… 21/9/2012

multimethod research1


Three characteristics that differentiate types of mixed methods designs

The priority given to either the quantitative or qualitative data collection

The sequence of collecting quantitative or qualitative data

The data analysis techniques used to either combine the analysis of data or keep the two types of data separate

Diunduh dari:…… 21/9/2012

multimethod research2

Three Types of Designs: Three common designs

QUAL-Quan Model

The exploratory mixed methods design

Qualitative data are collected first and are more heavily weighted

2. QUAN-Qual Model

The explanatory mixed methods design

Quantitative data are collected first and are more heavily weighted

3. QUAN-QUAL Model

The triangulation mixed methods design

Quantitative and qualitative data are collectedconcurrently and both are weighted equally

Diunduh dari:…… 21/9/2012

riset multi metode
  • 10 KarakteristikDesain MM
  • The title of the research includes terms that suggest more than one method is being used
  • Mixed methods
  • Integrated
  •  Triangular
  • 2. Quantitative – qualitative
  • Both quantitative and qualitative methods are used in the study

Diunduh dari:…… 21/9/2012

multimethod research3

Characteristics of Mixed Methods Designs

3. The researcher describes the kinds of mixed methods being used

4. The data collection section indicates narrative, numerical, or both types of data are being collected

5. The purpose statement or the research questions indicate the types of methods being used

6. Questions are stated and described for both quantitative and qualitative approaches

7. The researcher indicates these quencing of collecting qualitative and/or quantitative data (i.e., QUAN-Qual, QUAL-Quan, or QUAN-QUAL)

8. The researcher describes both quantitative and qualitative data analysis strategies

9. The writing is balanced in terms of quantitative and qualitative approaches

Diunduh dari:…… 21/9/2012

multimethod research4

Evaluating a Mixed Methods Design

Does the study use at least one quantitative and one qualitative research strategy?

What were the research questions addressed?

Who are the sponsors of the study and what are their expectations?

Does the study include a rationale for using a mixed methods design?

Does the study include a classification of the type of mixed methods design?

Does the study describe the priority given to quantitative and qualitative data collection and the sequence of their use?

Diunduh dari:…… 21/9/2012

multimethod research5

Evaluating a Mixed Methods Design

Was the study feasible given the amount of data to be collected and concomitant issues of resources, time, and expertise?

Who were the participants in the study? What did the samples consist of?

Does the study clearly identify qualitative and quantitative data collection techniques?


Diunduh dari:…… 21/9/2012

mixed method research quant qual in a single study
.Mixed Method Research – Quant & Qual in a Single Study.

A mixed method approach allows researchers to simultaneously benefit from both quantitative and qualitative research methods in the context of one study addressing a single set of business objectives.

Flow Monitor designs market research studies that take full advantage of the inherent benefits of both quantitative (e.g., surveys) and qualitative (e.g., focus groups, ethnographic techniques, etc.) research.

The business objectives will greatly determine the appropriate sequence of methods. The diagrams below illustrate this.

Diunduh dari: …… 21/9/2012


Diunduh dari:…… 21/9/2012

apakah mmr mixed methods research
Apakah MMR (Mixed Methods Research)?
  • Mixed methods research is not new but only recently been systematically described; ‘new era’ of mixed methods research (Tashakkori and Teddlie, 1998)
  • Different definitions of mixed methods research used by different researchers
  • Not simply the ad hoc combination of qualitative and quantitative methods, it is the planned mixing of methods at a pre- determined stage of the research (Halcomb et al., 2009)
  • “mixed methods [is] research which collects both qualitative and quantitative data in one study and integrates these data at some stage of the research process” (Halcomb et al., 2009)
  • Distinction between mixed methods (quant and qual) and multi method research (uses more than one method from same tradition) (Bazeley, 2007)

Diunduh dari:…… 21/9/2012

mengapa sains kesehatan berkembang ke arah mmr
Mengapasainskesehatanberkembangkearah MMR?
  • Increased reflexivity about researcher-researched relationships
  • Increased political awareness about what and who research is for
  • Growing formalisation of research governance and ethics procedures
  • The availability and ease of new technologies to analyse mixed methods research (e.g. Nvivo, MaxQDA, Atlas.ti)
  • International Research Collaboration

(Halcomb and Andrew, 2009)

Diunduh dari:…… 21/9/2012

rational penggunaan mmr
  • Triangulation - one of the first rationales for using mixed methods research (Denzin, 1970). Used to test the consistency of findings through different approaches.
  • Complementarity - clarifies and illustrates results from one method with the use of another method.
  • Development - the results of analysis using one method shapes subsequent methods or steps in the research process.
  • Initiation-stimulates new research questions or challenges results obtained through one method.
  • Expansion- provides richness and detail buy building on the findings of either qualitative or quantitative methods

(Greene et al., 1989)

Diunduh dari:…… 21/9/2012

tipologi mmr

Four central questions that inform the design of a mixed methods study:

  • In what sequence will the qualitative and quantitative data collection be implemented?
  • What relative priority will be given to the qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis?
  • At what stage of the project will the qualitative and quantitative data be integrated?
  • Will an overall theoretical perspective be used to guide the study?

(Creswell, 2003)

Diunduh dari:…… 21/9/2012

tipologi mmr empat basic designs
Tipologi MMR: Empat Basic Designs
  • Principal Quantitative, Qualitative Preliminary (qual -> QUANT)
  • Principal Qualitative, Quantitative Preliminary (quant -> QUAL)
  • Complementary Quantitative, Qualitative Follow-Up (QUANT -> qual)
  • Complementary Qualitative, Quantitative Follow-Up (QUAL -> quant)

(Morse, 1991; Morgan, 1998)

Diunduh dari:…… 21/9/2012

pengumpulan data dalam mmr
Pengumpulan Data dalam MMR

Interviews/ Focus Groups/ Questionnaires/ Surveys/ Validated Tests and Scales/ Observation


  • Balancing strengths and limitations of each method
  • Timing of data collection

Diunduh dari:…… 21/9/2012

analisis dalam mmr separate analyses
Analisisdalam MMR: Separate Analyses

Qualitative and quantitative data sets analysed separately and conclusions drawn that incorporate both data sets.

Can be used for the following purposes:

  • Triangulation
  • Expansion or Complementarity
  • Development

Separate analyses may give rise to contradictory or discrepant results which need to be explained

(Halcomb and Andrew, 2009)

Diunduh dari:…… 21/9/2012

analisis dalam mmr combining data types for synthesis
Analisisdalam MMR: Combining Data Types for Synthesis

Combining of data types for analysis requires transformation of data in some form in order to ‘marry’ diverse sources.

Can be done through:

  • Meta matrices, databases, spread sheets e.g. systematic reviews
  • Qualitising numerical data e.g. using scores to provide a descriptive classification
  • Counting
  • Quantitising qualitative data e.g. 0/1 transformation for absence/presence of code, numerical weighting of codes (MaxQDA)

(Halcomb and Andrew, 2009)

Diunduh dari:…… 21/9/2012

analysis of mixed methods research combining data types for synthesis
Analysis of Mixed Methods Research: Combining Data Types for Synthesis
  • Combined analysis can be used to:
  • Merge and compare (e.g. themes can be quantified, independent t tests and bivariate linear regression analyses in SPSS)
  • Explore, predict and explain (e.g. case by case variable matrix, cluster analysis)
  • Blend to created new variable to use in further studies

(Halcomb and Andrew, 2009)

Diunduh dari:…… 21/9/2012

isu isu tentang mmr
Isu-isutentang MMR
  • ‘paradigm wars’, reconciling philosophical assumptions of each methodological perspective.
  • Selecting and managing research team with diverse specialities.
  • Practicalities of data collection and analysis, may make concurrent analysis difficult
  • Statistical analysis often relies on large sample sizes which are not common in qualitative research
  • Transforming qualitative data into numerical form may lose some of the richness and nuances in the text
  • A lack of templates for the writing up and publishing mixed methods research, sometimes qualitative and quantitative results published separately
  • Not all journals publish mixed methods research which may limit publication opportunities

Diunduh dari:…… 21/9/2012

manfaat mmr mixed methods research
Manfaat MMR (Mixed Methods Research)
  • Gives researchers an opportunity to creatively rethink research design and the various different ways they can be linked to research questions
  • Potential to generate new insights and levels of analysis
  • Challenges taken for granted assumptions across a wide range of research methods topics
  • Brings together researchers from different backgrounds and different specialisms and allows them to think together on a given research problem

(Bergman, 2008)

Diunduh dari:…… 21/9/2012




journal of mixed methods research
.Journal of Mixed Methods Research.

The Journal of Mixed Methods Research (JMMR) is an innovative, quarterly, interdisciplinary, international publication that focuses on empirical, methodological, and theoretical articles about mixed methods research across the social, behavioral, health, and human sciences.

The journal\'s scope includes delineating where mixed methods research may be used most effectively, illuminating design and procedure issues, and determining the logistics of conducting mixed methods research.

Diunduh dari:…… 21/9/2012


DOI: 10.1177/1558689806298224 2007; 1; 112 Journal of Mixed Methods ResearchR. Burke Johnson, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie and Lisa A. Turner Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research.

Mixed methods research (also called mixed research) is becoming increasingly articulated, attached to research practice, and recognized as the third major research approach or research paradigm, along with qualitative research and quantitative research.

Diunduh dari:,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012


DOI: 10.1177/1558689806298224 2007; 1; 112 Journal of Mixed Methods ResearchR. Burke Johnson, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie and Lisa A. Turner Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research.

A History of Mixed Methods Research

We would position mixed research between the extremes Plato (quantitative research) and the Sophists (qualitative research), with mixed research attempting to respect fully the wisdom of both of these viewpoints while also seeking a workable middle solution for many (research) problems of interest.

Today, the primary philosophy of mixed research is that of pragmatism.

Mixed methods research is, generally speaking, an approach to knowledge (theory and practice) that attempts to consider multiple viewpoints, perspectives, positions, and standpoints (always including the standpoints of qualitative and quantitative research).

Diunduh dari:,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012


DOI: 10.1177/1558689806298224 2007; 1; 112 Journal of Mixed Methods ResearchR. Burke Johnson, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie and Lisa A. Turner Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research.

Mixed research, in its recent history in the social and behavioral or human sciences, started with researchers and methodologists who believed qualitative and quantitative viewpoints and methods were useful as they addressed their research questions.

For the 20th century, “mixed research” (in the sense of including what we, today, would call qualitative and quantitative data) can be seen in the work of cultural anthropologists and, especially, the fieldwork sociologists.

Diunduh dari:,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012


DOI: 10.1177/1558689806298224 2007; 1; 112 Journal of Mixed Methods ResearchR. Burke Johnson, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie and Lisa A. Turner Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research.

Denzin (1978) defined triangulation as “the combination of methodologies in the study of the same phenomenon” .

The four types of triangulation:

Data triangulation (i.e., use of a variety of sources in a study),

Investigator triangulation (i.e., use of several different researchers),

Theory triangulation (i.e., use of multiple perspectives and theories to interpret the results of a study), and

Methodological triangulation (i.e., use of multiple methods to study a research problem).

Diunduh dari:,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012


DOI: 10.1177/1558689806298224 2007; 1; 112 Journal of Mixed Methods ResearchR. Burke Johnson, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie and Lisa A. Turner Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research.

Jick (1979) noted the following advantages of triangulation:

It allows researchers to be more confident of their results;

It stimulates the development of creative ways of collecting data;

It can lead to thicker, richer data;

It can lead to the synthesis or integration of theories;

It can uncover contradictions, and

By virtue of its comprehensiveness, it may serve as the litmus test for competing theories.

Diunduh dari:,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012


DOI: 10.1177/1558689806298224 2007; 1; 112 Journal of Mixed Methods ResearchR. Burke Johnson, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie and Lisa A. Turner Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research.

Greene, Caracelli, and Graham (1989) identified the five purposes or rationales of mixed methodological studies:

Triangulation (i.e., seeking convergence and corroboration of results from different methods studying the same phenomenon),

Complementarity(i.e., seeking elaboration, enhancement, illustration, clarification of the results from one method with results from the other method),

Development (i.e., using the results from one method to other method),

Initiation (i.e., discovering paradoxes and contradictions that lead to a reframing of the research question), and

Expansion (i.e., seeking to expand the breadth and range of inquiry by using different methods for different inquiry components).

Diunduh dari:,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012


DOI: 10.1177/1558689806298224 2007; 1; 112 Journal of Mixed Methods ResearchR. Burke Johnson, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie and Lisa A. Turner Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research.

Collins, Onwuegbuzie, and Sutton (2006) identified four rationales for conducting mixed research:

Participant enrichment (e.g., mixing quantitative and qualitative research to optimize the sample using techniques that include recruiting participants),

Instrument fidelity (e.g., assessing the appropriateness and/or utility of existing instruments, creating new instruments, monitoring performance of human instruments),

Treatment integrity (i.e., assessing fidelity of intervention),

Significance enhancement (e.g., facilitating thickness and richness of data, augmenting interpretation and usefulness of findings).

Diunduh dari:,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012


DOI: 10.1177/1558689806298224 2007; 1; 112 Journal of Mixed Methods ResearchR. Burke Johnson, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie and Lisa A. Turner Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research.

Definitions of Mixed Methods Research

Huey Chen:

Mixed methods research is a systematic integration of quantitative and qualitative methods in a single study for purposes of obtaining a fuller picture and deeper understanding of a phenomenon.

Mixed methods can be integrated in such a way that qualitative and quantitative methods retain their original structures and procedures (pure form mixed methods). Alternatively, these two methods can be adapted, altered, or synthesized to fit the research and cost situations of the study (modified form mixed methods).

Diunduh dari:,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012


DOI: 10.1177/1558689806298224 2007; 1; 112 Journal of Mixed Methods ResearchR. Burke Johnson, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie and Lisa A. Turner Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research.

John Creswell:

Mixed methods research is a research design (or methodology) in which the researcher collects, analyzes, and

mixes (integrates or connects) both quantitative and qualitative data in a single study or a multiphase program

of inquiry.

Steve Currall:

Mixed methods research involves the sequential or simultaneous use of both qualitative and quantitative data

collection and/or data analysis techniques.

Diunduh dari:,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012


DOI: 10.1177/1558689806298224 2007; 1; 112 Journal of Mixed Methods ResearchR. Burke Johnson, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie and Lisa A. Turner Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research.

Isadore Newman:

Mixed methods research is a set of procedures that should be used when integrating qualitative and quantitative procedures reflects the research question(s) better than each can independently.

The combining of quantitative and qualitative methods should better inform the researcher and the effectiveness of mixed methods should be evaluated based upon how the approach enables the investigator to answer the research question(s) embedded in the purpose(s) (why the study is being conducted or is needed; the justification) of the study.

(Newman, Ridenour, Newman & DeMarco, 2003.)

Diunduh dari:,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012


DOI: 10.1177/1558689806298224 2007; 1; 112 Journal of Mixed Methods ResearchR. Burke Johnson, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie and Lisa A. Turner Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research.

Mixed methods research is the type of research in which a researcher or team of researchers combines elements of qualitative and quantitative research approaches (e.g., use of qualitative and quantitative viewpoints, data collection, analysis, inference techniques) for the broad purposes of breadth and depth of understanding and corroboration.

This definition refers to mixed methods research as a type of research:

A mixed methods study would involve mixing within a single study; a mixed method program would involve mixing within a program of research and the mixing might occur across a closely related set of studies.

Diunduh dari:,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012


DOI: 10.1177/1558689806298224 2007; 1; 112 Journal of Mixed Methods ResearchR. Burke Johnson, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie and Lisa A. Turner Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research.

Graphic of the Three Major Research Paradigms, Including Subtypes

of Mixed Methods Research

Diunduh dari:,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012


DOI: 10.1177/1558689806298224 2007; 1; 112 Journal of Mixed Methods ResearchR. Burke Johnson, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie and Lisa A. Turner Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research.

Current Issues for Mixed Methods Research

What are effective strategies for integration at different stages of the research process?

Bazeley (2006) has carefully examined how to integrate qualitative and quantitative data using data analysis software.

Tashakkori and Teddlie (2006) discussed the process of making metainferences (that are based on the integration of qualitative and quantitative strands in research studies).

The key idea that mixed methods research requires some form of integration is clear; still, however, additional research is needed to further explicate this process.

Diunduh dari:,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012


DOI: 10.1177/1558689806298224 2007; 1; 112 Journal of Mixed Methods ResearchR. Burke Johnson, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie and Lisa A. Turner Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research.

Current Issues for Mixed Methods Research

Does mixed methods need a particular, detailed set of philosophical and methodological positions?

Variation in particular philosophical commitments should be welcome in mixed methods research, and we should embrace these differences as an important part of the mixed methods research paradigm.

It is important that arguments and discussion about “appropriate” philosophical commitments continue, so that the field is self-reflexive and continues to grow (philosophically).

Diunduh dari:,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012


DOI: 10.1177/1558689806298224 2007; 1; 112 Journal of Mixed Methods ResearchR. Burke Johnson, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie and Lisa A. Turner Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research.

Current Issues for Mixed Methods Research

Are equal status designs (equal use of quantitative and qualitative epistemologies) possible?

To address specifically the issue of mixing ideas associated with research paradigms, we have introduced a concept called commensurability validity or legitimation, which is “the extent to which the meta-inferences made [in a mixed methods study] reflect a mixed worldview based on the cognitive process of Gestalt switching and integration” .

The strong (or fully) mixed methods position, we argue, is developed only after explicit and systematic consideration of qualitative and quantitative perspectives.

Diunduh dari:,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012


DOI: 10.1177/1558689806298224 2007; 1; 112 Journal of Mixed Methods ResearchR. Burke Johnson, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie and Lisa A. Turner Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research.

Current Issues for Mixed Methods Research

Should and how might qualitative dominant, equal status, and quantitative dominant mixed methods research be more fully developed and differentiated?

Will the qualitative and quantitative dominant mixed research be explicitly incorporated into the qualitative and quantitative research paradigms or will they develop as distinct types?

This should be an exciting area for future research as researchers and methodologists coming from different epistemological perspectives construct and systematize these subtypes.

Diunduh dari:,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012


DOI: 10.1177/1558689806298224 2007; 1; 112 Journal of Mixed Methods ResearchR. Burke Johnson, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie and Lisa A. Turner Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research.

Current Issues for Mixed Methods Research

What are the details of a full contingency theory for the conduct of human research?

That is, exactly

When and under what conditions should qualitative research be considered the appropriate approach,

When and under what conditions should quantitative research be considered the appropriate approach, and

When and under what conditions should mixed research be considered the appropriate approach?

Diunduh dari:,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012


DOI: 10.1177/1558689806298224 2007; 1; 112 Journal of Mixed Methods ResearchR. Burke Johnson, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie and Lisa A. Turner Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research.

Current Issues for Mixed Methods Research

What are the details of a full contingency theory for the conduct of human research?

A strength of a contingency theory of research is that the strengths and weaknesses of qualitative, quantitative, and mixed research are recognized, and all three approaches are considered to be important and needed, albeit in different circumstances.

A contingency theory also needs to be carefully developed to help the mixed methods researcher make wise decisions about how to mix methods and approaches in relation to situational contingencies (e.g., given limited resources, what is the best combination to maximize usefulness of information and evidence?).

Diunduh dari:,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012


DOI: 10.1177/1558689806298224 2007; 1; 112 Journal of Mixed Methods ResearchR. Burke Johnson, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie and Lisa A. Turner Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research.

Current Issues for Mixed Methods Research

A fuller definition of mixed methods research might include reference to the logic of mixed research.

We believe that additional work is needed to explicate this logic or set of logics.

When designing a mixed study, according to this “logic,” the research should strategically combine qualitative and quantitative methods, approaches, and concepts in a way that produces complementary strengths and nonoverlapping weaknesses.

Consideration of the strengths and weaknesses of different approaches is required in relation to situational contingencies.

Diunduh dari:,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012


DOI: 10.1177/1558689806298224 2007; 1; 112 Journal of Mixed Methods ResearchR. Burke Johnson, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie and Lisa A. Turner Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research.

Current Issues for Mixed Methods Research

Tenth, will the field be able to develop a typology of mixed methods designs that can be broadly agreed upon?

Currently, several typologies are available including, for example, Creswell and Plano Clark (2007), Morgan (1998), and Teddlie and Tashakkori (2006).

Do the qualitative dominant, quantitative dominant, and pure mixed methods research need separate sets of designs? We tentatively suggest that the answer is yes.

Diunduh dari:,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012


DOI: 10.1177/1558689806298224 2007; 1; 112 Journal of Mixed Methods ResearchR. Burke Johnson, Anthony J. Onwuegbuzie and Lisa A. Turner Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research.

Current Issues for Mixed Methods Research

Eleventh, and last, if one were to view mixed methods research, metaphorically, as the trunk of a tree, then what are its branches?

For example, should the major branches be labeled QUAL+quan, QUAN+qual, and QUAN+QUAL? What other branches or specialized types might develop over time (e.g., transformative mixed methods, collaborative mixed methods, reflective mixed methods)?

We expect many more specific types of mixed methods research and designs to crystallize in the future as researchers relate mixed methods research concepts and thinking to new and reoccurring research problems and situations.

Diunduh dari:,%20Burke%20Mixed%20Methods%20Research.pdf…… 21/9/2012


A Multimethod Approach to the Study of Sensitive Organizational Issues

Karen A. Jehn and Karsten Jonsen

Journal of Mixed Methods Research October 2010 vol. 4 no. 4 313-341

Sensitive organizational issues such as conflict, lying and deceit, and personal health issues are difficult to investigate because of their complex, elusive, and sometimes threatening nature as well as their potential consequences.

In this article, an approach is presented that uses triangulation of multiple quantitative and qualitative methods to investigate sensitive organizational issues.

This study of organizational conflict illustrates special data elicitation techniques (e.g., tree graphs, third-person questioning) designed to decrease the reluctance of employees to respond to various forms of inquiry.

The qualitative approach complements the survey methods by identifying, categorizing, and verifying the existence of constructs.

The benefits of the elicitation techniques, computerized text analysis, and multimethod comparison processes as remedies for research problems accentuated in studies of sensitive organizational issues are discussed.

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Language Learning Motivation in Early Adolescents: Using Mixed Methods Research to Explore Contradiction

Pamela M. Wesely

Journal of Mixed Methods Research October 2010 vol. 4 no. 4 295-312.

This mixed methods study with an Explanatory Design is an exploration of students’ language learning motivation as it relates to their attrition from a language immersion program.

A total of 131 students who had graduated from five public elementary immersion schools responded to surveys, and 33 of those students were interviewed.

Data analysis procedures included a theme analysis of the interview data, a statistical analysis of the survey data, and an integrated consideration of the qualitative and quantitative findings.

It was found that mixed methods research can be uniquely revealing about social psychological constructs such as motivation, it can offer new perspectives where previous studies were contradictory, and it can accommodate multiple theoretical frameworks.

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The Use and Added Value of Mixed Methods in Management Research

José F. Molina-Azorίn

. Journal of Mixed Methods Research January 2011 vol. 5 no. 1 7-24

The prevalence, characteristics, and added value of mixed methods articles published in two management fields are examined through a sequential mixed methods design with four phases.

The results show that mixed methods articles are published in management journals with different prevalence rates and characteristics. Moreover, an analysis of the impact and added value of mixed methods to the field of management is carried out.

Implications for scholars, academic institutions, and journals with regard to the application and publication of mixed methods research are examined.

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Refining a Location Analysis Model Using a Mixed Methods Approach: Community Readiness as a Key Factor in Siting Rural Palliative Care Services

Valorie A. Crooks, Nadine Schuurman, Jonathan Cinnamon, Heather Castleden, Rory Johnston.

Journal of Mixed Methods Research January 2011 vol. 5 no. 1 77-95.

Drawing on recent debates pointing to the value of mixed methods research in human geography, the authors revisit a quantitative location analysis model previously created to site palliative care services in rural British Columbia, Canada.

The original quantitative model posited that population (i.e., number of residents in the community), isolation (i.e., travel time to existing specialized palliative care), and vulnerability (i.e., number of residents older than 65 years in the community) are three factors that must be accounted for when siting palliative care services in rural areas.

Using qualitative interview data, the authors refine this model to include a newly identified factor: community readiness.

They conclude with a discussion of the benefits of adopting a mixed methods approach to location analysis model development.

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A Methodology for Conducting Integrative Mixed Methods Research and Data Analyses

Felipe González Castro,Joshua G. Kellison, Stephen J. Boyd, Albert Kopak

Journal of Mixed Methods Research October 2010 vol. 4 no. 4 342-360

Mixed methods research has gained visibility within the last few years, although limitations persist regarding the scientific caliber of certain mixed methods research designs and methods.

The need exists for rigorous mixed methods designs that integrate various data analytic procedures for a seamless transfer of evidence across qualitative and quantitative modalities.

Such designs can offer the strength of confirmatory results drawn from quantitative multivariate analyses, along with “deep structure” explanatory descriptions as drawn from qualitative analyses.

This article presents evidence generated from over a decade of pilot research in developing an integrative mixed methods methodology. It presents a conceptual framework and methodological and data analytic procedures for conducting mixed methods research studies, and it also presents illustrative examples from the authors’ ongoing integrative mixed methods research studies.

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Multiple Research Approaches.

IJMRA = International Journal of Multiple Research Approaches is an international peer-reviewed journal for timely publication of global research, scholarship, educational, researcher and practitioner perspectives on multiple, hybrid (outcome of unusual blending), synergistic (combined effect), integrated and cultural research approaches (be these Indigenous, institutional, or community based) including the Asian, Arctic, Pacific, Latin American and African regions, as well as European and North American.

The journal\'s primary focus is effectively to combine various theoretical frameworks, methodologies and methods to address current research questions appropriately.

Diunduh dari: …… 21/9/2012


Beyond the ceiling effect: Using a mixed methods approach to measure patient satisfaction

Sharon Andrew, Yenna Salamonson, Bronwyn Everett, Elizabeth J Halcomb, Patricia M Davidson. IJMRA 2011 5(1): 052 - 063.

This study reports patient satisfaction with the nursing care on a neurosurgical critical care unit. A modified version of the Ludwig-Beymer Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire (PSQ-7) was used, and included structured items and semi-structured interview questions. Data were collected from 149 patients. Participants rated their satisfaction as high (Mean = 25.14; SD = 2.96). The distribution of scores was skewed and every item demonstrated a ceiling effect. Principal component analysis yielded a one-component solution which explained 48% of the variance.

NVivo® was used to match PSQ-7 scores with qualitative data. Participants\' comments were categorised as positive, negative or \'yes, but\'. Just over half the patients made positive comments and 29% of patients in the low group made negative comments. Three categories: \'communication\', \'nursing care delivery\' and \'the hospital environment\' emerged from the qualitative data.

A mixed method approach enables researchers to move beyond the ceiling effect of quantitative measures of patient satisfaction and to gain a more meaningful explanation of patient satisfaction.

Diunduh dari: …… 22/9/2012


Integrating qualitative and quantitative research approaches via the phenomenological method

William Paul Fisher AND A Jackson Stenner

IJMRA 2011 5(1): 089 - 103.

Separated and mixed applications of qualitative and quantitative methods are typically encumbered by markedly different philosophical orientations. Multiple inefficiencies arise when mixed methods work at cross purposes with each other.

The phenomenological method, however, has the potential to integrate qualitative and quantitative concerns in ways that orient research towards uniform criteria of substantive meaningfulness and mathematical rigour. Three characteristics of a qualitative-quantitative methodological pluralism are described: structural invariance, substantive interpretability and the display of anomaly.

When combined with networked information technologies, new opportunities emerge for a qualitatively meaningful and quantitatively precise measurement framework in the research and practice of the health sciences.

Diunduh dari: …… 23/9/2012


Tracking employees\' twists and turns: Describing a mixed methods approach to assessing change in the psychological contract

Sarah BankinsIJMRA 2011 5(3): 351 - 366

The psychological contract is a key analytical device utilised by both academics and practitioners to conceptualise and explore the operation of the employment relationship. However, despite the recognised importance of the construct, some authors suggest that its empirical investigation has fallen into a \'methodological rut\' [Conway & Briner, 2005, p. 89] and neglects to assess key tenets of the concept, such as its temporal and dynamic nature.

This paper outlines the research design of a longitudinal, mixed methods study which draws upon the strengths of both qualitative and quantitative modes of inquiry in order to explore the development of, and changes in, the psychological contract.

Supported by a critical realist philosophy, the paper offers a research design suitable for exploring the processes of change not only within the psychological contract, but also similar constructs in the human resource management and broader organisational behaviour fields.

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.Mixed method research designs: A case study of their adoption in a doctor of business administration program

Peter John Miller, Roslyn CameronIJMRA 2011 5(3) : 387 - 402

The paper presents empirical data concerning the utilisation of mixed method research in Doctor of Business Administration (DBA) research projects (theses). The Southern Cross University, Australia, DBA program was established in 1996 as a research degree and has successfully graduated over 250 graduates from a diverse range of countries across the globe. It is the largest DBA program in the Australasia.

The research will present prevalence rates of mixed methods research utilised by doctoral candidates, data will be presented on the most frequently used data collection methods and research approaches within the field of business and management, with empirical data from a number of countries including Australia, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, and Indonesia. Emergent issues with regard to the use of mixed methods research in business and management research and the teaching of mixed methods are discussed.

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. Combined methods in poverty analysis: Experiences from Namibia Sebastian Levine, Benjamin RobertsIJMRA 2008 2(2): 205-211

We explore differences in the findings on poverty in Namibia from a series participatory poverty assessments and a household survey on household income and expenditure. We find that the main conclusions from these research processes appear plausible even if they point to diverging paths of poverty. These results are attributed to methodological challenges and especially to different perceptions about the determinants of poverty that each approach conveys.

Using a Q-Squared approach we illustrate that when definitions of poverty based on the perceptions raised in the qualitative assessments are used on the quantitative data then the results tend to converge. One particularly interesting finding is that those identified as poor using the official poverty measure, established explicitly to capture deprivation in consumption expenditure, have higher average levels of consumption expenditure than a combined Q-Squared measure based exclusively on non-monetary criteria.

We generally find that while there might have been a real improvement in consumption-based measures of poverty over time, given the emphasis on issues related to assets, access to and quality of delivery of basic services, and issues related to vulnerabilities (especially food insecurity and the AIDS epidemic) in the participatory poverty assessments, it is not surprising that the qualitative data point to deteriorating living conditions.

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Quality and Quantity constitutes a point of reference for European and non-European scholars to discuss instruments of methodology for more rigorous scientific results in the social sciences. The journal publishes papers on models of classification, methods for constructing typologies, models of simulation, neural networks and fuzzy sets for social research, mathematical models applied to social mobility, mathematical models of voting behavior, qualitative methodology and feminist methodology, discussions on the general logic of empirical research, analysis of the validity and verification of social laws, and similar topics. Quality and Quantity is an interdisciplinary journal which systematically correlates disciplines such as mathematics and statistics with the social sciences, particularly sociology, economics, and social psychology.

Diunduh dari: …… 23/9/2012


Passenger satisfaction: a multi-group analysis

Laura Antonucci, Corrado Crocetta, Francesco D. d’Ovidio and Ernesto Toma

Quality & Quantity. 2012, DOI: 10.1007/s11135-012-9771-7


To analyse the level of passenger satisfaction of a public local transport service, after an explorative factorial analysis, a Structural Equation Model was adopted. The main goal of this paper is to verify how much some service characteristics could influence the perceived quality of the service.

The passengers are found very sensitive to the level of the service organization and to the way the service is delivered (punctuality and regularity, and short waiting time). The safety and reliability of buses, the level of comfort and cleanness and the professionalism and courtesy of staff had, also, a big weight to determinate of the customer satisfaction. Applying a further analysis on different sub-samples, based on individual characteristics, we found that the model above identified is full invariant for different residence area and frequency of use of the service, and partially invariant for age groups, employment status, time slot of use and reason of use.

The test of invariance the structural coefficients failed considering gender or education level of the passengers.

Diunduh dari: …… 23/9/2012


. Measuring the quality of work: the case of the Italian social cooperative

Maurizio Carpita and Silvia Golia

Quality & Quantity. 2012 46(6): 1659-1685

Quality of work has within a short time become a major subject of study and discussion in labour economy.

Its quantification is a challenging task because it implies the translation of various subjective perceptions into a single objective measure (composite indicator).

In this paper, the method used to construct measures is the Rating Scale Model and the available data come from the Survey on Italian Social Cooperatives carried out in 2007.

The validity of the obtained Rasch measures is tested with respect to some overall variables of the quality of work.

Moreover, using inferential confidence intervals, these measures are utilized to evaluate the differences in the perception of the quality of work due to worker (gender, age and education) and cooperative (type, dimension and geographic area) characteristics, work characteristics (service area, membership, time and type of contract) and work incentives (economic, professional and learning).

Diunduh dari: …… 23/9/2012


Combining research techniques to improve quality service in hospitality

Mar Vila, Xari Rovira, Gerard Costa and Ricard Santoma.

Quality & Quantity. Volume 46. Number 3 / April 2012 . P. 795-812


Hospitality research includes many studies that combine and revisit the quantitative–qualitative debate, and review the arguments for and against using mixed-methods. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the application of qualitative methodologies based on the combination of techniques which also include quantitative elements in addition to those pertaining to qualitative techniques.

The research aims to specifically identify the most important managerial factors which, from the point of view of hotel chain executives, serve to improve the quality of the service they provide.

The techniques used are concept mapping and qualitative optimization, both of which are qualitative methodologies though they include quantitative elements to overcome the subjectivity deficits typically found in qualitative methodologies. In addition, the combination of both techniques leads to greater precision of the results obtained. Our methodological proposal combines concept mapping with qualitative optimisation, thereby improving the prioritisation and hierarchical ordering of the ideas obtained and structured.

Instead of working with each cluster’s average score in terms of importance (as defined within the concept mapping model), our contribution is based on prioritising these based on their distance to the optimal reference. This allows for experts’ evaluations of each idea in terms of its importance to not be strictly quantitative, that is, the experts are not obligated to assign numbers to their evaluations; rather, they can assess ideas based on qualitative labels.

Diunduh dari: …… 23/9/2012


. A Multimethod Approach to Identifying Norms and Normative Expectations Within a Corporate Hierarchy: Evidence from the Financial Services Industry

Stephen V. Burks and Erin L. Krupka

Management Science January 2012 vol. 58 no. 1 203-217.

We use an incentive-compatible economic experiment and surveys in the field at a large financial services firm to identify the norms for on-the-job behavior among financial advisers and their leaders, and the normative expectations each group has of the other.

We examine whistle-blowing on a peer, an incentive clash between serving the client and earning commissions, and a dilemma about fiduciary responsibility to a client.

We find patterns of agreement among advisers, among leaders, and between the two groups, that are consistent with company guidelines identified ex ante. However, we also find measurable differences between what leaders expect and the actual norms of advisers.

When there is such a mismatch we are able to distinguish miscommunication from ethical disagreement between leaders and advisers.

Finally, we show that when advisers\' personal ethical opinions do not match group norms, this mismatch is correlated with job dissatisfaction and lying for money in a second experiment.

Diunduh dari: …… 23/9/2012



The nature of mixed methods design of the research

Being a pragmatist, the current research methodology is a mixed methods research design. Mixed methods design is a type of research which involves ‘the collection or analysis of both quantitative and qualitative data in a single study in which the data are collected concurrently or sequentially (Creswell, 2003; Creswell, 2008).

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The nature of mixed methods design of the research

According to Gray (2009), ‘mixed methods design is used in circumstances where relatively little or nothing is known about the research setting or research problems.

In such situations, it would be unfeasible and impractical to design a questionnaire, since the constructs being measured are either unknown or not sufficiently understood.

The qualitative study, then, explores, identifies and can provide clarity about the kinds of variables requiring further investigation.’

Diunduh dari: …… 23/9/2012


. Mixing Methods in Innovation Research: Studying the Process-Culture-Link in Innovation Management

Jens O. Meissner & Martin Sprenger

Forum Qualitative Social Research (FQS). Volume 11, No. 3, Art. 13 – September 2010.

Two trends in innovation management have influenced the basic idea of this paper. The first trend shows increased attempts by managers to utilize linear innovation processes derived from literature and from practice. The second trend is an increasing acceptance of the dynamics created in an "innovation culture," as being one of the key drivers of innovation. Both approaches partially contrast each other.

The missing link between innovation process design and innovation culture at the firm-level provides the theoretical framework of this paper. Behind the scenes of innovation management studies, we realized a methodological gap existed between the research of innovation cultures and their impact upon an organization\'s innovation processes.

Thus, we applied a methodological mix of problem-centered interviews, structural analyses, and context analyses to study the phenomenon. We conducted an interview-based single case study in a Swiss telecommunications company. From these methodologies we created a themed landscape comprising relational topics of the innovation dynamics within an innovation project in the company (one year duration) and briefly described each topic.

The main finding in our study is the dynamic role-model that innovation managers in large service firms have to apply to succeed in their innovation management work. Thus, our methodological mix proved to be helpful, although some weaknesses remain to be solved in the future.

Diunduh dari: …… 23/9/2012


. Mixing Methods in Innovation Research: Studying the Process-Culture-Link in Innovation Management

Jens O. Meissner & Martin Sprenger

Forum Qualitative Social Research (FQS). Volume 11, No. 3, Art. 13 – September 2010.

Diunduh dari: …… 23/9/2012


.The other side of sustainable innovation: is there a demand for innovative services?

Markku Anttonen, Minna Halme, Eeva Houtbeckers, Johanna Nurkka.

. Journal of Cleaner Production. Available online 23 December 2011

As one prominent form of sustainable innovation, eco-efficient services have been promoted as a promising way towards more sustainable societies. However, they have not turned into reality as expected. This paper argues that one of the primary reasons for the slow market penetration of eco-efficient services is the mismatch between customers’ needs and service providers’ offerings.

In order to start to bridge the knowledge gap, we investigate such customer needs through the analysis of interview and survey data obtained from over 300 potential customer companies in Finland, most of which operate either in the EU or globally.

The paper discusses what kinds of eco-efficient services customers need and under what conditions, and which barriers hinder the use of eco-efficient services by business customers. The customer companies desire material efficiency services for managing side streams and non-core processes.

They primarily seek cost and broader business-efficiency improvements from these services, and find that service providers should be able to construct a clear business case when marketing services.

Finally, although there are material efficiency services in the market, customer companies find they are not being marketed actively.

Diunduh dari: …… 23/9/2012


. The other side of sustainable innovation: is there a demand for innovative services?

Markku Anttonen, Minna Halme, Eeva Houtbeckers, Johanna Nurkka.

. Journal of Cleaner Production. Available online 23 December 2011

Framework for the study: Factors influencing the demand of innovative B2B eco-efficient services according to previous research.

Diunduh dari: …… 23/9/2012


. The other side of sustainable innovation: is there a demand for innovative services?

Markku Anttonen, Minna Halme, Eeva Houtbeckers, Johanna Nurkka.

. Journal of Cleaner Production. Available online 23 December 2011

Complemented framework: A comprehensive set of factors influencing the demand of innovative B2B eco-efficient services.

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