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ISU SEMASA DALAM PEMBANGUNAN MANUSIA (FEM 4000) KREDIT: 3(1+2), PERJUMPAAN BERSEMUKA 1 - PROGRAM PJJ SEMESTER PERTAMA 2011-2012. INSTRUCTOR: SITI NOR BINTI YAACOB, PhD. OFFICE: TINGKAT 1 BLOK A, FEM CONTACT NO: 03-89467088/012-2841844 E-MAIL: [email protected]

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ISU SEMASA DALAM PEMBANGUNAN MANUSIA (FEM 4000) KREDIT: 3(1+2),PERJUMPAAN BERSEMUKA 1 - PROGRAM PJJSEMESTER PERTAMA 2011-2012

INSTRUCTOR: SITI NOR BINTI YAACOB, PhD.

OFFICE: TINGKAT 1 BLOK A, FEM

CONTACT NO: 03-89467088/012-2841844

E-MAIL: [email protected]

ADDRESS: Jab. Pembangunan Manusia & Pengajian Keluarga, Fakulti Ekologi Manusia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor.

SITINOR/FEM4000/KEDUA 2010-2011


SINOPSIS KURSUS 3(1+2),:

Perbincangan tentang isu semasa berkaitan pembangunan manusia dalam pelbagai konteks. Pelajar menganalisis dan membentang seminar tentang isu terpilih ke arah peningkatan kualiti kehidupan.


Tajuk kuliah
TAJUK KULIAH 3(1+2),

  • Pengenalan kepada isu semasa dalam pembangunan manusia

  • Overview pelbagai konteks pembangunan manusia

  • Panduan pengumpulan maklumat tentang isu terpilih

  • Kaedah menganalisis isu pembangunan manusia

  • Teknik menyediakan kertas kerja

  • Teknik pembentangan kertas kerja

  • Penggunaan teknologi dalam pembentangan kertas kerja


Amali
AMALI 3(1+2),

  • Pelajar memilih tajuk, menjalankan kajian perpustakaan atau lapangan, menulis laporan dan seterusnya membentangkan kertas kerja


HASIL PEMBELAJARAN 3(1+2),

Pelajar dapat:

  • Mengenalpasti isu semasa dan utama dalam pembangunan manusia

  • Menganalisis pelbagai isu pembangunan manusia mengikut konteks

  • Membincangkan isu tertentu ke arah peningkatan kualiti hidup manusia



Rujukan
RUJUKAN 3(1+2),

Darcey, J. (1991). Human Development Across Lifespan. Dubuque: Brown Publishers.

Kamarudin Ngah (1990). Kaedah Penyelidikan. Petaling Jaya: Penerbit Fajar Bakti.

Pearsell, T. E. (2001). The Elements of Technical Writing. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

Penslar, R. L. (1995). Research Ethnics: Case Materials. Bloomington: Indiana University.

Roze, M. & Maxwell, S. (2002). Technical Communication in the Age of Internet. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Veit, R., Gould, C., & Clifford, J. (1990). Writing, Reading, and Research. New York: MacMillan.

Watson, W., Pardo, L., & Tomovic, V. (1989). How to Give an Effective Seminar. Toronto: Stoddart.


Tugasan individu 1 2 penulisan kertas kerja 1 30 dan pembentangan seminar 40

TUGASAN INDIVIDU 1 & 2: 3(1+2),PENULISAN KERTAS KERJA 1 (30%) DAN PEMBENTANGAN SEMINAR (40%)

Bagi tugasan 1 dan 2, pelajar perlu menulis kertas kerja dan membentangkannya dalam seminar pada Perjumpaan Bersemuka Kedua.

Tema bagi seminar ini ialah “Pembangunan Manusia dalam Era Globalisasi: Isu dan Cabaran”.

SITINOR/FEM4000/KEDUA 2010-2011


Subtema seminar adalah seperti berikut: 3(1+2),

(i) Sosial dan Kekeluargaan

(ii) Ekonomi dan Kewangan

(iii) Teknologi Maklumat dan Komunikasi (ICT)

(iv) Kesihatan

(v) Alam Sekitar.

SITINOR/FEM4000/KEDUA 2010-2011


Tulis kertas kerja dalam Bahasa Malaysia atau Bahasa Inggeris antara 20-25 muka surat (langkau dua).

Bentang kertas kerja yang ditulis semasa Perjumpaan Bersemuka Kedua.

Anggaran masa pembentangan adalah 30 minit bagi setiap pelajar.

Selepas bentang, baiki kertas kerja dan hantar 2 minggu sebelum peperiksaan akhir.

Setiap pelajar boleh memilih isu-isu ini sebagai tajuk atau beri tajuk lain yang berkaitan bagi tugasan 1 dan tugasan 2.

SITINOR/FEM4000/KEDUA 2010-2011


Subtema i sosial kekeluargaan

Subtema Inggeris antara 20-25 muka surat (langkau dua). (i): SOSIAL & KEKELUARGAAN

Ibu Bapa bawah Umur

Bunuh Diri

Rogol

Buang Bayi

Pemerdagangan Manusia

Mat Rempit/Lumba Haram

Dadah

Pelacur

Gangsterism

10. Rompak

11. Curi

12. Culik

13. Simbahan Asid

14. Lari dari Rumah

15. Transexual

16. Penderaan

17. Keganasan Rumahtangga

18. Kepincangan Institusi Keluarga

19. Sumbang Mahram

SITINOR/FEM4000/KEDUA 2010-2011


Subtema ii ekonomi dan kewangan

Subtema Inggeris antara 20-25 muka surat (langkau dua). (ii):EkonomidanKewangan

Kenaikan Harga Barang

Inflasi

Ketidaksamaan Ekonomi antara Bandar dan Luar Bandar

Kemiskinan

Pengangguran

Pinjaman (rumah, kereta)

PTPTN

Ceti Haram-Along

SITINOR/FEM4000/KEDUA 2010-2011


Subtema iii ict

Subtema Inggeris antara 20-25 muka surat (langkau dua). (iii): ICT

Social Network

Pembangunan ICT

Pengalahgunaan Internet

Ketagihan Internet

Trend SMS

SITINOR/FEM4000/KEDUA 2010-2011


Subtema iv kesihatan

Subtema Inggeris antara 20-25 muka surat (langkau dua). (iv): Kesihatan

HIV

Penuaan

Merokok

Obesiti

Denggi

Makanan Kesihatan

Kos Perubatan Meningkat

Kekurangan Doktor

SITINOR/FEM4000/KEDUA 2010-2011


Subtema v alam sekitar

Subtema Inggeris antara 20-25 muka surat (langkau dua). (v): AlamSekitar

Global Warming

Kitar Semula

Bencana Alam

Pencemaran Alam Sekitar

Kehausan Petroleum

Kebersihan Bandar

SITINOR/FEM4000/KEDUA 2010-2011


Tugasan individu 3 penulisan kertas kerja 2 30

TUGASAN INDIVIDU 3: PENULISAN KERTAS KERJA 2 (30%) Inggeris antara 20-25 muka surat (langkau dua).

Bagi tugasan 3, pelajar perlu menulis kertas kerja berdasarkan topik yang dipilih masing-masing.

Topik yang dipilih mestilah merupakan isu semasa berkaitan pembangunan manusia global.

Tulis kertas kerja dalam Bahasa Malaysia atau Bahasa Inggeris antara 15-20 muka surat (langkau dua).

Serah tugasan 3 dua minggu sebelum peperiksaan akhir.

SITINOR/FEM4000/KEDUA 2010-2011


Fem 4000

FEM 4000 Inggeris antara 20-25 muka surat (langkau dua).

TOPIC 1

INTRODUCTION TO CURRENT ISSUES IN HUMAN DEVELOPMENT


Ecology of human development urie bronfenbrenner
ECOLOGY OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT URIE BRONFENBRENNER

  • study individual’s development within the context of the system of relationships that form his/her environment.

  • define complex layers of environment, each having an effect on an individual’s development.

  • changes in any one layer will ripple throughout other layers.

  • to understand individual development – must look not only at his/her immediate environment, but also at the interaction of the larger environment.



Microsystem: environmental systems, with bi-directional influences within and between the systems.

  • Immediate environments (family, school, peer group, neighbourhood and childcare environments)

    Mesosystem:

  • A system comprised of connections between immediate environments (i.e., a child’s home and school)

    Exosystem:

  • External environmental settings which only indirectly affect development (such as parent's workplace)


Macrosystem: environmental systems, with bi-directional influences within and between the systems.

- The larger cultural context (Eastern vs. Western culture,national economy, political culture, subculture)

Chronosystem:

- The patterning of environmental events and transitions over the course of life.


Each system contains roles norms and rules that can powerfully shape development

Each system contains: environmental systems, with bi-directional influences within and between the systems.

roles, norms and rules that can powerfully shape development.


What is human development

WHAT IS HUMAN DEVELOPMENT? environmental systems, with bi-directional influences within and between the systems.

Human development is the process of growing to maturity. In biological terms, this entails growth from a one-celled zygote to an adult human being.

In the scope of humanity, human development is an international and economic development paradigm

Human development can refer to anthropological, sociological, and psychological approaches to examining human development in context

Human development can be viewed as the process of achieving an optimum level of health and well-being. It includes physical, biological, mental, emotional, social, educational, economic, and cultural components.


  • Human Development: environmental systems, with bi-directional influences within and between the systems.

    Paul Streeten describes human development as the process of enlarging people’s choices, the choices that are created by expanding human capabilities and functioning – what people do and can do in their lives.

  • (UNDP, 1999)

  • Individuals do not develop their capabilities in vacuum.

  • A person’s individual attributes are influenced by the family, community and society into which the individual is born, grows up, and lives as an adult.


What is human development1

WHAT IS HUMAN DEVELOPMENT? environmental systems, with bi-directional influences within and between the systems.

"The basic purpose of development is to enlarge people's choices. In principle, these choices can be infinite and can change over time. People often value achievements that do not show up at all, or not immediately, in income or growth figures: greater access to knowledge, better nutrition and health services, more secure livelihoods, security against crime and physical violence, satisfying leisure hours, political and cultural freedoms and sense of participation in community activities. The objective of development is to create an enabling environment for people to enjoy long, healthy and creative lives."

Mahbub ul HaqFounder of the Human Development Report


What is human development2

WHAT IS HUMAN DEVELOPMENT? environmental systems, with bi-directional influences within and between the systems.

Human Development is a development paradigm that is about much more than the rise or fall of national incomes.

It is about creating an environment in which people can develop their full potential and lead productive, creative lives in accord with their needs and interests.

People are the real wealth of nations.

Development is thus about expanding the choices people have to lead lives that they value.

And it is thus about much more than economic growth, which is only a means —if a very important one —of enlarging people’s choices.


What is human development3

WHAT IS HUMAN DEVELOPMENT? environmental systems, with bi-directional influences within and between the systems.

Fundamental to enlarging these choices is building human capabilities —the range of things that people can do or be in life.

The most basic capabilities for human development are to lead long and healthy lives, to be knowledgeable, to have access to the resources needed for a decent standard of living and to be able to participate in the life of the community.

Without these, many choices are simply not available, and many opportunities in life remain inaccessible.


Central issues in human development
CENTRAL ISSUES IN HUMAN DEVELOPMENT environmental systems, with bi-directional influences within and between the systems.

  • Issues in Human Development may draw upon many different disciplines:

    • the natural, social and behavioral sciences.

    • humanistic and cultural studies.

      • helps in the illustrations and understanding of human experience and behavior.


Central issues in human development1
CENTRAL ISSUES IN HUMAN DEVELOPMENT environmental systems, with bi-directional influences within and between the systems.

  • Some critical topics in Human Development:

    • the nature of human development and changes across the life span

    • the social and environmental contexts in which human development takes place

    • the determinants of human development and behavior

    • the domains and dimensions of thought, emotion and action


Examples of specific issues in human development

EXAMPLES OF SPECIFIC ISSUES IN HUMAN DEVELOPMENT environmental systems, with bi-directional influences within and between the systems.

Health issues

Educational issues – information and knowledge

Income/ economy/ poverty – levels of living

Environmental issues

Technological innovations

Globalization

Ageing population

Human capital development/ socialization

Human rights

Civil society – values, moral, ethics, integrity

migration/ foreign workers

balancing work and family

Social ills


Fem 40001

FEM 4000 environmental systems, with bi-directional influences within and between the systems.

TOPIC 2

CONTEXTS OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT


The Theory of Human Development: A Cross-Cultural Analysis – Welzel et al. (2002)

3 trajectories of societal change:

socioeconomic development

value change

society’s political institutions


The Theory of Human Development: A cross-cultural analysis – Welzel et al. (2002)

3 trajectories of societal change:

socioeconomic development

Set of closely linked changes including technological innovation, productivity growth, improving health and life expectancy, increasing incomes, rising levels of education, growing access to information and increasing social complexity.


The Theory of Human Development: A cross-cultural analysis – Welzel et al. (2002)

3 trajectories of societal change:

value change

comes along with SED when expanding markets and social mobilization diversify and intensify human activities (e.g. – commercial transactions)


The Theory of Human Development: A cross-cultural analysis – Welzel et al. (2002)

3 trajectories of societal change:

value change

it weaken vertical authority relations, strengthen horizontal bargaining relations

emergence of civic cultural values; individual modernity; postmaterialistic values; liberal values; self-expression values


The Theory of Human Development: A cross-cultural analysis – Welzel et al. (2002)

3 trajectories of societal change:

society’s political institutions

massive trends towards more democracy

outcomes of change???

Irreversible linear trend or cyclical patterns?

Global or culture specific?

Desirable?


The Theory of Human Development: A cross-cultural analysis – Welzel et al. (2002)

3 trajectories of societal change:

SED, value change & democratization – tend to go together



Human Development: – Welzel et al. (2002)

Paul Streeten describes human development as the process of enlarging people’s choices, the choices that are created by expanding human capabilities and functioning – what people do and can do in their lives.

(UNDP, 1999)

Individuals do not develop their capabilities in vacuum.

A person’s individual attributes are influenced by the family, community and society into which the individual is born, grows up, and lives as an adult.



Fem 40002

FEM 4000 – Welzel et al. (2002)

TOPIC 3

GATHERING OF INFORMATION ON SELECTED TOPIC


Determine your information needs – Welzel et al. (2002)

Define your topic

Increase familiarity with your topic

Map your ideas

Types of assignment

Amount of information

Types of sources

Types of publications

Identify and obtain information


Define your topic – Welzel et al. (2002)

Before you begin looking for information, you should identify:

the exact problem you wish to solve

the concepts and terms that describe the problem

the amount of information required to solve the problem

the type of information required to solve the problem.


Increase familiarity with your topic – Welzel et al. (2002)

Do some preliminary research of your set topic by familiarising yourself with your lecture notes, relevant chapter etc.

Map your ideas


Types of assignment – Welzel et al. (2002)

Assignments can vary from a short 5 minute oral presentation, to a technical report, literature review, or thesis.

The type of assignment you are asked to produce has a direct affect on:

the amount of information you require

the types of sources you require

the types of publications you require.


Amount of information – Welzel et al. (2002)

Some assignments can be completed by consulting your lecture notes...

... while other assignments require more detailed and comprehensive information.

How much is enough?

The question of how much information is required is a matter of judgement.

To ensure you meet the requirements and present an appropriate depth of coverage of your topic, refer to the marking and assessment criteria set by your lecturer.

The length, weight, marks, and task should guide the amount of information required.


Types of sources – Welzel et al. (2002)

You may be directed to use only primary sources for your assignment......while other assignments might require use of both primary and secondary sources.

Information sources can be regarded as primary or secondary depending on their:

originality

proximity to the source or event.


Types of sources – Welzel et al. (2002)

Primary sources come directly from the source or person. They are original materials, which have not been filtered through interpretation.

For example: patents, statistics, interviews and surveys

Secondary sources analyse, interpret and comment on primary information.

For example: biographies, journal articles


Evaluate information or resources relevance timeliness reliability validity coverage accuracy

Evaluate Information or Resources – Welzel et al. (2002)

Relevance

Timeliness

Reliability

Validity

Coverage

Accuracy


Relevance – Welzel et al. (2002)

Read the table of contents, abstract or summary. Ask yourself:

Does the information sound relevant?

Who is the intended audience?

Are they central or peripheral to your topic?

Primary or secondary source?

Comprehensive enough for your needs?

Express particular point of view?

Level of the presented information


Timeliness – is the information timely? – Welzel et al. (2002)

when published/ compiled?

information regularly updated? How often?

still valid for your topic?


Reliability – is the information reliable? – Welzel et al. (2002)

who is the author?

credentials of the author?

come from an authoritative source?

where published? Journal? Popular magazines?

been edited/ reviewed?

how stable is the information?


Validity – Welzel et al. (2002)

What process was used to gather and analyse the information?

When assessing the validity of the information, ensure that its collection used sound methodology based on established principles and fact or is consistent with accepted professional and industry standards.

Documentation of methods, assumptions and sources of error should be transparent.


Coverage – is the information complete? – Welzel et al. (2002)

does it cover the topic in terms of:

time – historical information, current information

geography – local, regional, national, international

specificity – how specific? Detailed or general?

point of view – a single point, an opposing points, or a range of view points?

is the information complete / abridged?

all the information accessible? Summary only?


Accuracy – is it accurate or bias? – Welzel et al. (2002)

how is it presented? fact or opinion?

is it correct? can verify?

obvious errors or omissions?

facts misquoted or misrepresented?

language use – concrete, objective, specific.

is it biased? represent particular point of view, intentionally exclude others?


Fem 40003

FEM 4000 – Welzel et al. (2002)

TOPIC 4:

METHODS OF ANALYZING ISSUES IN HUMAN DEVELOPMENT


Introduction

INTRODUCTION – Welzel et al. (2002)

Many psychologist study human development.

They tend to understanding what is the unique about humans.

Methods and techniques are developed to study how humans learn.

Millicent Shinn of Niles, California is the first person to complete observation on a child. She observed on her niece and made records. The records was published in The Biography of a Baby.

This will help many psychologists to understand how importance of the scientific study in research area.


This topic surveys the methods that developmental psychologist use in studying the human beings.

Contents:

Cross-sectional method

Longitudinal method

Cross cultural studies

Co-twin studes


Cross sectional method

Cross Sectional Method psychologist use in studying the human beings.

Key to be remember:

- Compare groups that differ in age or background.

It aims to compare developmental levels at various ages or background.

Gather data at one point in time.

It contrast with longitudinal method.


Cross sectional method1

Cross Sectional Method psychologist use in studying the human beings.

Example:

Study the developmental level of infant from birth to 1 year-old.

Different group with different age infants will be investigated to compare their developmental level.

Various group of subjects participate in a study:

A group of 1 month-old infants, a group of 2 months-old infants……a group of 12 months-old infant.

Compare these 12 groups of subject.


Longitudinal method

Longitudinal Method psychologist use in studying the human beings.

Key to be remember:

Observe one group at different times.

Same group of subjects will be studied in different times.

Normally used in study the stages of human development.

Strength:

- Able to observe the subject’s developmental stage from beginning to end of the study.

Weakness:

- Attrition/subject loss

- Subject loss occurs when participants fail to complete the study.


Cross cultural studies

Cross Cultural Studies psychologist use in studying the human beings.

Key to be remember:

Compare groups from different cultures.

It focus on how culture influences on human’s development.

People differ in culture, customs, and roles are being studied and compared.

Topics which related with cross cultural studies:

Individualism vs. collectivism

Gender roles

Intelligence


Co twin studies

Co-twin Studies psychologist use in studying the human beings.

Key to be remember:

- Differences between identical twins are not caused by heredity.

When developmental psychologist want to rule out the effects of heredity in their study.

This method aims to compare the identical twins who have been given different kinds or training or reared apart.


Co twin studies1

Co-twin Studies psychologist use in studying the human beings.

For example,

Hilgard (1933) had conducted a study about memory performance.

Trained one twin to remember digits in the first year

Trained the other twin to remember digits in the second year.

Compare their memory performance.

Result:

The twin trained later did better than the twin trained in the first year.

Both of the twins lost their achievement after training was ended.


Co twin studies2

Co-twin Studies psychologist use in studying the human beings.

This indicates that time of training could influence twins’ memory performance.

Time of training served as an Independent variable/ environmental factor in the study.

Journal related:

Borkenaua, P., Riemann, R., Angleitner, A., & Spinathc, F. M. (2002). Similarity of childhood experiences and personality resemblance in monozygotic and dizygotic twins: a test of the equal environments assumption. Personality and Individual Differences, 33: 261-269.


FEM 4000 psychologist use in studying the human beings. TOPIC 5: TECHNIQUES IN PREPARING SEMINAR PAPER

The word “technical” is defined as having special, usually practical knowledge.

- Webster

Technical – derived from Greek word “tekhnê” and “tektõn” which mean “craft” and “carpenter”.

Craft and carpentry are skills that require special knowledge.

Suggests that technical writing is writing that involves special knowledge and vocabulary.

FEM 4000 FEBRUARI 2011


PRINCIPLES OF TECHNICAL WRITING psychologist use in studying the human beings.

Technical writing is chiefly writing and secondly technical.

The basic function of technical writing is to inform.

Descriptions – specific details

Explanations – logical analysis

FEM 4000 FEBRUARI 2011


PRINCIPLES OF TECHNICAL WRITING psychologist use in studying the human beings.

The form and tone depend on its purpose and audience.

Purpose: to inform, instruct, persuade, to obtain something – or a combination of purpose.

Categories of technical writing:

Proposal

Feasibility report

Survey report

Progress report

Complaint report

Trip report

Conference report

Laboratory report.

Technical paper.

Instruction manual

FEM 4000 FEBRUARI 2011


PRINCIPLES OF TECHNICAL WRITING psychologist use in studying the human beings.

The form and tone depend on its purpose and audience.

Audience:

Who are they?

What do they know about the subject?

What do they want?

What do they want it for?

i & ii – set the tone for technical writing

iii & iv – what to cover and to emphasize

FEM 4000 FEBRUARI 2011


PRINCIPLES OF TECHNICAL WRITING psychologist use in studying the human beings.

Accuracy.

Information is correct and complete.

Fulfills special purpose and directed to its specific audience.

Foundation of accuracy :

solid research

Careful transcription of notes

Thorough checking of figures

Careful reading of draft

FEM 4000 FEBRUARI 2011


PRINCIPLES OF TECHNICAL WRITING psychologist use in studying the human beings.

The essential qualities – clarity, coherence and conciseness.

Clarity:

writing is clear when the reader can grasp its meaning in the first reading.

The writer bears this responsibility

Clarity begins where obstruction ends.

FEM 4000 FEBRUARI 2011


Contoh

PRINCIPLES OF TECHNICAL WRITING psychologist use in studying the human beings.

Acoustical problems are realized due to the lack of proper insulation.

The lack of proper insulation causes acoustical problems.

Contoh:

Unfortunately, our competitors have adopted this procedure, but we have not.

Our competitors have adopted this procedure, but unfortunately we have not.

FEM 4000 FEBRUARI 2011


PRINCIPLES OF TECHNICAL WRITING psychologist use in studying the human beings.

The essential qualities – clarity, coherence and conciseness.

Coherence:

Smooth and logical flow.

All the parts hang together to form a whole.

FEM 4000 FEBRUARI 2011


Contoh1

PRINCIPLES OF TECHNICAL WRITING psychologist use in studying the human beings.

Stored program control uses these two memory devices. A program store and a call store. The program store contains the data required to instruct central control how to connect calls and the call store keeps track of all the calls in progress. The two memory stores exchange information and feed instruction to central control, which processes them. Although the system executes only one instruction at a time, it operates so quickly and appears to handle all calls simultaneously.

All calls appear to be handled simultaneously, but the two memory devices make it possible for the system to operate so quickly. The data on how to connect call is contained in the program store, which exchanges information with the call store. Central control processes the information of both stores. All the call in progress are recorded in the call store, but the system executes only instruction at a time. Stored program control uses these two memory devices.

Contoh:

FEM 4000 FEBRUARI 2011


PRINCIPLES OF TECHNICAL WRITING psychologist use in studying the human beings.

The essential qualities – clarity, coherence and conciseness.

Conciseness:

The expression of much in few words (relevance and necessity).

Contoh:

The reason that quality control over the past several years has gone down is that management has not taken the trouble to train inspectors enough to do the job.

Quality control has suffered in recent years because management has not trained inspectors adequately.

FEM 4000 FEBRUARI 2011


PRINCIPLES OF TECHNICAL WRITING psychologist use in studying the human beings.

Describe objects, explains processes, theories and policies – usually in combination.

Object.

A die is a solid cube that is cast on a flat surface, usually in pairs in a games of chance. Carved in bone, or molded in plastic, it ranges in size from 1.27 to 1.58 cm squares, and is usually white, green or red. Each face of the die is marked with ………

Process

The functioning of the brains depends on the flow of information through elaborate circuits consisting of networks of neurons. Information is transferred from one cell to …………

FEM 4000 FEBRUARI 2011


PRINCIPLES OF TECHNICAL WRITING psychologist use in studying the human beings.

Describe objects, explains processes, theories and policies – usually in combination.

Theory

Policy

The teacher, under the principles of academic freedom, has the right to discuss in his classroom all issues, however controversial, that he considers relevant to the nature of his course. This right carries with it the responsibility of considering controversial objectively. While the teacher has the right to present conclusion to which he believes the evidence points, he has responsibility of acknowledging the existence of – and showing respect for – opposing opinions.

FEM 4000 FEBRUARI 2011


DEVELOPING AN OUTLINE psychologist use in studying the human beings.

AN OUTLINE IS:

A logical, general description.

A schematic summary.

An organizational pattern.

A visual and conceptual design of your writing.

FEM 4000 FEBRUARI 2011


DEVELOPING AN OUTLINE psychologist use in studying the human beings.

Purpose:

General and specific.

Processes:

Determine purpose of paper

Determine audience

Develop the thesis of the paper.

FEM 4000 FEBRUARI 2011


DEVELOPING AN OUTLINE psychologist use in studying the human beings.

Structure of an outline:

Principles:

Parallelism

Coordination.

Items of equal significance are given comparable designations.

A is equal to a B, a1 to a2 etc.

Contoh:

  • Word processing programs

  • Database programs

  • Spreadsheet programs

  • Word processing programs

  • Microsoft words

  • Page Maker

FEM 4000 FEBRUARI 2011


Coordination contoh

DEVELOPING AN OUTLINE psychologist use in studying the human beings.

  • Types of programs

    • Word processing

    • Desktop publishing

  • Evaluation of programs

    • Word processing

    • Word

    • Word perfect

    • Desktop publishing

    • Page Maker

    • Q express

Coordination.

Contoh:

FEM 4000 FEBRUARI 2011


Subordination

DEVELOPING AN OUTLINE psychologist use in studying the human beings.

  • Word processing

    • Word

    • Word perfect

  • Desktop publishing

    • Page Maker

    • Q express

Subordination

  • Word processing programs

    • Word

    • Useful

    • Obselete

FEM 4000 FEBRUARI 2011


  • A Word psychologist use in studying the human beings.

    • Positive features

    • Negative features

  • Word Perfect

    • Positive features

    • Negative features

FEM 4000 FEBRUARI 2011


Division personal computers hardware types cost maintenance personal computers software

DEVELOPING AN OUTLINE psychologist use in studying the human beings.

Division.

Personal computers: hardware

Types

Cost

maintenance

Personal computers: software

FEM 4000 FEBRUARI 2011


Division computers mainframe micro floppy disk hard disk computers uses institutional personal

DEVELOPING AN OUTLINE psychologist use in studying the human beings.

Division.

Computers

Mainframe

Micro

Floppy disk

Hard disk

Computers uses

Institutional

Personal

FEM 4000 FEBRUARI 2011


DEVELOPING AN OUTLINE - RESEARCH PAPER psychologist use in studying the human beings.

TITLE:

The Influence of Ecological Factors on Teenage Depression

OUTLINE:

INTRODUCTION

LITERATURE REVIEW

METHODS

FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

CONCLUSION, IMPLICATION & RECOMMENDATION

REFERENCES

FEM 4000 FEBRUARI 2011


DEVELOPING AN OUTLINE - RESEARCH PAPER psychologist use in studying the human beings.

TITLE:

The Influence of Ecological Factors on Teenage Depression

OUTLINE:

INTRODUCTION

Research questions

Objectives

LITERATURE REVIEW

Definition

Contributing factors

FEM 4000 FEBRUARI 2011


DEVELOPING AN OUTLINE - RESEARCH PAPER psychologist use in studying the human beings.

METHODS

Research design

Sample and sampling technique

Data collection

Instrumentation

FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

Descriptive findings

Multivariate analysis/correlational analysis/hypothesis testing

CONCLUSION, IMPLICATION & RECOMMENDATION

FEM 4000 FEBRUARI 2011


DEVELOPING AN OUTLINE - REVIEW/ THEORETICAL PAPER psychologist use in studying the human beings.

TITLE:

Keadilan Sosial di Malaysia: Satu Penilaian

OUTLINE:

PENGENALAN

KEADILAN DI MALAYSIA

UNSUR KETIDAKADILAN SOSIAL

FAKTOR YANG MENYUMBANG KEPADA KETIDAKADILAN SOSIAL

KESIMPULAN

FEM 4000 FEBRUARI 2011


DEVELOPING AN OUTLINE - REVIEW/ THEORETICAL PAPER psychologist use in studying the human beings.

TITLE:

Keadilan Sosial di Malaysia: Satu Penilaian

OUTLINE:

PENGENALAN

Fokus

Makna keadilan sosial

KEADILAN DI MALAYSIA

Ekonomi

Politik

Perundangan dan kehakiman

Hubungan antara kaum

FEM 4000 FEBRUARI 2011


DEVELOPING AN OUTLINE - REVIEW/ THEORETICAL PAPER psychologist use in studying the human beings.

UNSUR KETIDAKADILAN SOSIAL

Ekonomi

Politik

Perundangan dan kehakiman

Hubungan antara kaum

FAKTOR YANG MENYUMBANG KEPADA KETIDAKADILAN SOSIAL

Ekonomi

Politik

Perundangan dan kehakiman

Hubungan antara kaum

KESIMPULAN

RUJUKAN

FEM 4000 FEBRUARI 2011


TOPIC 6: ORAL PRESENTATION psychologist use in studying the human beings. Introduction

  • Oral reports in class:

    • Will increase ability and confidence to think on your feet

    • Longer term – not only help in launching a career, but in career advancement

  • Brief, focused presentations.

  • Well prepared, but not “memorized speeches”

FEM 4000/KEDUA 2010-2011/SNY


How to Prepare & Present Oral Report psychologist use in studying the human beings.

  • In content & structure – similar to written report

    • Both need introduction, a body and an ending

    • But additional factors must be considered in each section when a report is presented orally.

FEM 4000/KEDUA 2010-2011/SNY


How to Prepare & Present Oral Report psychologist use in studying the human beings.

  • Introduction

    • should announce your subject, purpose & scope

    • Gain the audience attention

      • Thought provoking question

      • Make a dramatic statement

      • Present an interesting fact

    • Shouldn’t be too gimmicky

FEM 4000/KEDUA 2010-2011/SNY


How to Prepare & Present Oral Report psychologist use in studying the human beings.

  • Body

    • Limit the number of points you cover

      • Normal limitations of the attention span

      • Orient the audience more – e.g., a third factor that may hinder the progress …..

    • Rule of thumb for structuring the body of presentation is to build as many signposts as you can.

      • Tell the audience what you’re going to tell them

      • Tell them

      • Tell them you’ve told them

FEM 4000/KEDUA 2010-2011/SNY


How to Prepare & Present Oral Report psychologist use in studying the human beings.

  • Ending

    • Audience interest is highest at the beginning and end of presentation

    • Thus, use ending to summarize/ highlight the main points

    • Use the method of ending that is most suitable to your subject and purpose:

      • A summary

      • A conclusion

      • A recommendation

      • An appeal to action

      • An appropriate generalization

FEM 4000/KEDUA 2010-2011/SNY


How to Prepare & Present Oral Report psychologist use in studying the human beings.

  • Presentation

    • Use note cards that contain key word or phrases instead of complete sentences.

    • Reduce anxiety:

      • Prepare

      • Practice

      • Visit the site

      • Take a few deep breaths

      • Concentrate on friendly faces in the audience at first to build confidence.

      • Move your arms, feet or point to something to release nervous energy.

FEM 4000/KEDUA 2010-2011/SNY


How to Prepare & Present Oral Report psychologist use in studying the human beings.

  • Presentation as a whole – some strategies to get the most out of your planning/preparation:

    • Look at your audience and talk directly to them

      • If faces make you nervous, Look at forehead instead – appear to the audience that you are looking right into their eyes

    • Stand on both feet – stop nervous shifting

    • Let your arms move to accompany your words

    • Speak loud enough so everyone can hear you

    • Speak clearly

    • Speak slow enough to give the audience time to absorb what you say.

    • Talk naturally

    • Let your voice show that you are interested in your subject.

FEM 4000/KEDUA 2010-2011/SNY


How to Prepare & Present Oral Report psychologist use in studying the human beings.

  • Handling Visuals during the Speech

    • Position visuals so they are visible from all parts of the room

    • Introduce any visual you show

    • Explain the visuals or talk about the key ideas they suggest

    • Stand next to the visual not in front of it.

    • Point the visual with the arm closest to it. Don’t reach across your body 9blocks view and interferes with eye contact)

    • Show the visual long enough for the audience for the audience to grasp its details

FEM 4000/KEDUA 2010-2011/SNY


Topic 7 use of technology in seminar paper prsentation

TOPIC 7: USE OF TECHNOLOGY IN SEMINAR PAPER PRSENTATION psychologist use in studying the human beings.

Creating an Effective PowerPoint Presentation

Effective PowerPoint slides

Text guidelines

Clip Art and Graphics

Audience

Prepare your presentation

What happens if the computer does not work but your audience still expects a presentation?

Rehearse, test presentation on colleagues.

Don’t read off the screen!

FEM 4000/KEDUA 2010-2011/SNY


Effective PowerPoint slides psychologist use in studying the human beings.

Use design templates

Standardize position, colors and styles 

Include only necessary information 

Limit the information to essentials

Content should be self-evident

Use colors that contrast 

Be consistent with effects, transitions and animation 

Too many slides can lose your audience

FEM 4000/KEDUA 2010-2011/SNY


2. Text guidelines psychologist use in studying the human beings.

Generally no more than 6 words a line

Generally no more than 6 lines a slide

Avoid long sentences

Larger font indicates more important information 

Font size generally ranges from 18 to 48 point

Be sure text contrasts with background

Fancy fonts can be hard to read

Words in all capital letters are hard to read

Limit punctuation marks

Avoid abbreviations and acronyms

FEM 4000/KEDUA 2010-2011/SNY


3. Clip Art and Graphics psychologist use in studying the human beings.

Should balance the slide

Should enhance and complement the text, not overwhelm 

No more than two graphics per slide


4. Audience psychologist use in studying the human beings.

Who is your audience?  

What is their background?    

What do they expect to get from the presentation?  

What is the age of your audience?

Your message may be great but you will irritate your audience if they can not read your slides. 


5 prepare your presentation

5. Prepare your presentation psychologist use in studying the human beings.

What is your message and what do you want to accomplish with your presentation?

What is your time constraint?

How do you wish to handle questions, during or after the presentation?

Your audience may determine that for you.


6 what happens if the computer does not work but your audience still expects a presentation

6. What happens if the computer does not work but your audience still expects a presentation?

Handouts of your slides may be useful even if the computer does work. 

You may print small versions of your slides or the outline version.


7. audience still expects a presentation?Rehearse, test presentation on colleagues.

8. Don’t read off the screen!

Use slides as prompts, outlines, or conversation points, not cue cards. 

It is very boring for the audience to see every word you say or have you read from note cards.


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