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Chapter 1. Introduction to Programming. Computer Hardware. CPU Memory Main or primary Secondary or auxiliary Input device(s) Output device(s). Computer Program.

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chapter 1

Chapter 1

Introduction to Programming

computer hardware
Computer Hardware
  • CPU
  • Memory
    • Main or primary
    • Secondary or auxiliary
  • Input device(s)
  • Output device(s)
computer program
Computer Program
  • A list of instructions that direct the computer hardware to perform a particular data processing tack or solve a specific problem. The program is coded in a particular programming language such as C++, Fortran, and Visual Basic.
  • Software = a program or a collection of programs
programming languages
Programming Languages
  • Low level machine language: 0’s and 1’s; the native language of the machine; machine-dependent.
  • Intermediate level assembler language: mnemonics; suggestive symbols or letters; Machine dependent; requires translator known as assembler.
  • High level procedural language: resembles English and/or standard notation of math; machine-independent (portable); requires translator known as compiler or interpreter.
types of instructions
Types of Instructions
  • Input: e.g., cin in C++
  • Process: many operator including +, -, *, / to perform arithmetic and other types of processing.
  • Output: e.g., cout in C++
types of computer software
Types of Computer Software
  • Systems software
    • Operating system: Windows, Unix
    • Compiler: C/C++ compiler
  • Applications software
    • Payroll program: usually custom-designed/developed.
    • Airline reservation software: usually custom-designed/developed; very expensive.
    • Word processor: perform generic word-processing tasks for general consumers.
  • Step-by-step instructions that lead to the solution of a problem.
  • Example: What is the algorithm that computes the average of three arbitrary values? What is the algorithm that adds integers from 1 to 100? (not unique! Some are better or more efficient that others. Efficient in what sense?)
algorithms continued
Algorithms continued
  • Tools to help develop/specify/visualize an algorithm
    • Flowchart: a set of symbols (p9); less popular today but helpful to beginners to visualize the steps.
    • Pseudocode: informal English statements; easier to convert to a program using a structured programming language such as C or Fortran.
computer problem solving steps
Computer Problem Solving Steps
  • Understand/formulate/specify the problem
  • Develop the algorithm, which is independent of computer languages.
  • Convert the algorithm to a program (Computer language must be chosen)
  • Test/debug (steps 1 thru 4 may be iterative)
  • Deliver
how to run or execute test a c program
How to run or execute (test) a C++ program
  • Need a C++ translator known as a compiler, which convert C++ source program (or source code) to machine language program (or object code).
  • There are several popular C/C++ compilers available commercially or in the public domain: Borland/Turbo C/C++, Microsoft Visual C/C++, gcc compiler, etc.
turbo c c program development environment
Turbo C/C++ program development environment
  • The Integrated Development Environment or IDE
    • Editor
    • Preprocessor and compiler
    • Debugger
    • Others
a simple c program
A simple C++ program
  • The program displays/prints a greeting message “Hello World”
  • Steps 1 and 2 are quite clear, we go straight to steps 3, namely code the program in C++
a simple c program continued
A simple C++ program continued

#include <iostream.h>

int main ( )


cout << “Hello World!” << endl;

return 0;


another simple program what does it do
Another simple program. What does it do?

#include <iostream.h>

int main ( )


double x, y, z, avg;

cout << “Enter 3 values: “;

cin >> x >> y >> z;

avg = ( x + y + z ) / 3;

cout << “The average of three arbitrary values is “

<< avg;

return 0;


c language elements tokens
C++ language elements (tokens)
  • Keywords: 62 reserved word including return; each has special meaning and must not be misspelled.
  • Identifier: names chosen by the programmer; it is usually used to name or identify a memory location (known as a variable) or a function.
  • Operators: specifies operations
  • Constants: may be numeric or non-numeric
  • Punctuation symbols such as ;.
tokenize the above programs
Tokenize the above programs

In the two programs

  • What are the keywords?
  • What are the identifiers?
  • What are the punctuators?
  • What are the constants?
  • What are the operators?
  • What does #include <iostream.h> mean?
  • What are the rest of the lines in the program for?
  • Why return 0?
  • What are cin and cout?
  • What is >>?
  • What is <<?
  • Are the ordering of lines (instructions) in the program important?
  • Can one use u, v, and w in place of x, y, and z?