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Topic 12 El Niño. GEOL 2503 Introduction to Oceanography. El Ni o. A disruption of the ocean-atmosphere system in the tropical Pacific Has important consequences for weather around the globe Frequently occurs around Christmas. Normal conditions. Strong trrade winds-.

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Topic 12 el ni o

Topic 12El Niño

GEOL 2503

Introduction to Oceanography


El ni o
El Nio

  • A disruption of the ocean-atmosphere system in the tropical Pacific

  • Has important consequences for weather around the globe

  • Frequently occurs around Christmas


Normal conditions

Strong trrade winds-


El ni o resources
El Niño resources

  • NOAA: http://www.elnino.noaa.gov/

  • See animations at:

    • http://esminfo.prenhall.com/science/geoanimations/animations/26_NinoNina.html


El ni o characteristics
El Niño Characteristics

  • Normally develops in W. tropical Pacific

  • Often results in natural disasters

  • Occurs every 2 to 10 years

  • Most recent and severe events in 1953, ‘57-’58, ‘65, ‘72-’73, ‘76-’77, ‘82-’83, ‘91-’92, ‘97-’98, ‘02-’04, ‘06-’07, ’09’10



El ni o conditions
El Niño Conditions


El ni o and productivity
El Nio and Productivity

  • During normal conditions, major upwelling brings nutrients and carbon dioxide into the photic zone

  • Creates conditions of very high productivity (plants) and fish that feed on plants and other small fish

  • El Nio shuts down the upwelling and decreases productivity


El ni o sea surface temperatures
El Niño Sea Surface Temperatures


La ni a
La Niña

  • Trade winds strengthen and increase upwelling

  • Unusually cold ocean temperatures in the Equatorial Pacific

  • “Super normal” or opposite of El Niño


La ni a conditions
La Niña Conditions


El Niño—large pool of warm surface water in western Pacific

La Niña—so much upwelling of cold water in eastern Pacific that it spreads to west, cooling sea surface temperatures



La ni a impacts in u s
La Niña Impacts in U.S.

  • Warmer winters in the Southeast

  • Cooler winters in the Northwest


El Niño and La Niña and the Asian monsoons. When surface temperatures in the eastern equatorial Pacific are warmer than usual (an El Niño event), heavy rains hit East Africa and droughts beset India, Indonesia, and Australia. When ocean conditions flip-flop (a La Niña), so do rainfall patterns across Asia. From http://www.whoi.edu/oceanus/v2/article/images.do?id=53506


ENSO

  • El Niño/Southern Oscillation

  • The Southern Oscillation refers to changes in sea level air pressure patterns in the Southern Pacific Ocean between Tahiti and Darwin, Australia.



Southern oscillation so
“Southern Oscillation” (SO)

  • Trade winds weaken or fail

  • Tropical winds reverse and go east instead of west

  • Atmospheric pressure cells reverse

  • Wet areas become dry (drought)

  • Dry areas get flooded

  • “Oscillates” taking 3-5 months


Southern oscillation index
Southern Oscillation Index

Pressure differences between Tahiti and Darwin, Australia



Ocean s response to the so
Ocean’s Response to the SO

  • Warm water moves to the east

  • Elevates sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in SE Pacific

  • Shuts down upwelling, can induce downwelling

  • Reduces available nutrients

  • Kills fish and sea birds - especially bad off Peru


El ni o and hurricanes
El Niño and Hurricanes

  • Biggest influence is in North

  • In years with moderate to strong El Niño, the North Atlantic basin experiences:

    • A substantial reduction in number of hurricanes

    • A 60% reduction in numbers of hurricane days

    • An overall reduction in system intensity


Tao triton
TAO/TRITON

  • Tropical Atmosphere Ocean Project (TAO)

  • Triangle Trans-Ocean Buoy Network (TRITON)

  • Real-time data from moored ocean buoys for improved detection, understanding and prediction of El Niño and La Niña.




Sea surface temperature winds 20 c isotherm and upper ocean temperature and current at the equator
Sea Surface Temperature, Winds, 20°C Isotherm, and Upper Ocean Temperature and Current at the Equator

To view this animation and others, visit the TAO/TRITON data display page at www.pmel.noaa.gove/tao/jsdisplay/ani/html.


CTD

  • Conductivity, Temperature, Depth

  • Detect how the conductivity and temperature of the water column changes relative to depth.

  • Salinity can be derived from these two variables.

  • Water sampling is often done at specific depths so scientists can learn the physical properties of the water column are at that particular place and time.


Deploying a CTD array


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