V-SHARE. ISLAM NOTES #3. Islam Notes #3. I. Historical Turning Points. 1. 632 AD – Death of Muhammad 2 . 638 AD – Muslim Conquest of Jerusalem 3 . 656 AD – Islam Schism a . Sunni – Shiite division 4 . 661 AD – Islam Empire’s capital moved to Damascus. I. Historical Turning Points.
ISLAM NOTES #3
1. 632 AD – Death of Muhammad
2. 638 AD – Muslim Conquest of Jerusalem
3. 656 AD – Islam Schism
a. Sunni – Shiite division
4. 661 AD – Islam Empire’s capital moved to Damascus
5. 711 AD – Islamic Empire moves into Spain
6. 732 AD – Islamic Expansion ended in Europe at the
Battle of Tours in France.
8. 750 AD – Islamic Empire’s capital moved to Baghdad
7. 1258 AD – Fall of Baghdad to Mongols
Mecca and Medina.
2. Spread into the Fertile Crescent, Iran, Central Asia, North
Africa, and Spain.
a. Helped because their enemies, Byzantineand Persian Empires, were weak from fighting each other.
a. Artists not allowed to make images or pictures of living creatures.
b. Created calligraphy
1. The art of elegant handwriting to decorate public walls with passages of the Qur’an.
d. Dome of the Rock
2. Arabic alphabet
a. It is written from right to left, in a cursive style, and includes 28 letters.
a. By age 7, Muslim boys entered Mosque schools for free. Wealthier families paid tuition, but most schooling ended after the skills of reading and writing were mastered.
4. Translation of Ancient Texts
a. As Muslim expire expanded, literature from the Greeks, Indian, and Persians were translated in Arabic.
1. Arabic Numerals
a. Adapted from India, including zero.
a. Invented by Muslim mathematicians
b. Expressed equations to define curves and lines.
a. Al-Razi (865 AD – 925 AD)
1. Classified chemical substances a s animal, mineral, or vegetable
2. Wrote an early medical encyclopedia that described the origins of disease and identified the differences between smallpox and measles.
b. IbnSina (900 AD)
1. Wrote the Canon of Medicine which attempted to summarize all the medical knowledge up to that time.
2. Described the circulation of blood and the functions of kidneys and the heart.
a. Accurately described solar eclipses and proved the moon affects the oceans.
b. Measured the size and circumference of the earth with accuracy unmatched till the 1800’s.
c. Knew the earth was round, but accepted the Greek theory that the earth was the center of the universe.
2. ARABIC ALPHABET
3. ARABIC NUMERALS
6. IBN SINA