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### Statistical Thinking

Homework Quiz 8/21

- Match the appropriate term to the correct definition

A: Collections of observations (such as measurements, genders, survey responses).

B: Subcollection of members selected from a population

C: The collection of data from every member of the population

D: The complete collection of all individuals to be studied.

Data

Census

Sample

Section 1-2

Statistical Thinking

- Context
- Source
- Sampling Method
- Conclusions
- Practical Implications

Statistical Thinking

- Context
- Source
- Sampling
- Conclusions
- Practical Implications

Context

- Consider the following data (page 5)
- We need to know what this represents
- Context is what the values represent, where they came from, and why they were collected.
- These values represent freshman Rutgers students’ weights at the beginning and end of the school year. The purpose is to test if the Freshman 15 is a real thing.

Statistical Thinking

- Context
- Source
- Sampling Method
- Conclusions
- Practical Implications

Source

- The source of the data is who is collecting the data.
- In our example, the source is the Rutgers University Department of Nutritional Sciences.
- Is this a reliable source?

- An unreliable source: A shoe polish company doing a study on whether or not scuffed shoes at an interview could lead to not getting the job.
- Why?

Statistical Thinking

- Context
- Source
- Sampling Method
- Conclusions
- Practical Implications

Sampling Method

- The sampling method used is how the data is collected.
- Voluntary Response: Participants get to choose if they want to be involved. (Less Reliable)
- Random Sampling: A method is used to collect data randomly from the population. (More Reliable)

- In the study we’ve been talking about, 217 students were weighed in the fall and asked to come back in the Spring. Only 67 of these students chose to return.
- Why does this taint our results?

Statistical Thinking

- Context
- Source
- Sampling Method
- Conclusions
- Practical Implications

Conclusions

- Conclusions should be based on the statistical analysis only, and should be stated in ways that people with no understanding of statistics should be able to understand.
- The researchers in our study concluded that the freshman 15 was a myth.

Statistical Thinking

- Context
- Source
- Sampling Method
- Conclusions
- Practical Implications

Practical Implications

- Practical implications are what the data really means for the people it relates to.
- Practical Implications vs. Statistical Significance
- In a test on whether the Atkins diet works, the data showed that the average participant lost 2 lbs a year.
- Statistically, this shows that the diet is effective.
- Realistically, what are the implications?

Homework

- P.10: 15-18

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