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Process Design. Chapter Coverage What are design and process? Product and services design and process design are interrelated. Design activity is a process itself Designing processes Process types. Design:

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Process Design

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Process Design

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  • Chapter Coverage

  • What are design and process?

  • Product and services design and process design are interrelated.

  • Design activity is a process itself

  • Designing processes

  • Process types

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“To design” refers to the process of originating and developing a plan for a product, service or process.


Is any part of an organization which takes a set of input resources which are then used to transform something into outputs of products or services.

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Preliminary Design

Concept Generation


Process design

Evaluation and Improvement

Prototyping and final design

Process Design

Processes that Design Products

and Services

Processes that Produce Products and Services

Supply Network Design


and Flow

Process Technology



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  • Nature of the design activity:

  • Design is inevitable – products, services and the processes which produce them all have to be designed.

  • Product design influences process design – decisions taken during the design of a product or service will have an impact on the decisions taken during the design of the process which produces those products or services and vice versa.

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Designing the Processes that Produce the Product or Service

Designing the Product or Service

Processes should be designed so they can create all products and services which the operation is likely to introduce

Products and services should be designed in such a way that they can be created effectively

Decisions taken during the design of the product or service will have an impact on the process that produces them and vice versa

Product & services design are interrelated to its process design

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  • Process Design and Product/Service Design are Interrelated

  • To commit to the detailed design of a product or service consideration must be given to how it is to be produced.

  • Design of process can constrain the design of products and services.

  • The overlap is greater in the service industry:

    • Service industry - it is impossible to separate service design and process design – they are the same thing.

    • Manufacturing industry - it is possible to separate product design and process design but it is beneficial to consider them together because the design of products has a major effect on the cost of making them.

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  • Process and product/service design must satisfy customer

  • Products/services designer customers satisfaction criteria

    • Aesthetically pleasing

    • Reliability

    • Meets expectation

    • Inexpensive

    • Quality

    • Easy to manufacture and deliver

    • Speedy

  • Process designer customers satisfaction achieved through:

    • Layout

    • Location

    • Process technology

    • Human skills

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Finished designs which are:


High quality: Error-free designs which fulfil their purpose in an effective and creative way

Speedily produced: Designs which have moved from concept to detailed specification in a short time

Dependably delivered: Designs which are delivered when promised

Produced flexibly: Designs which include the latest ideas to emerge during the process

Low cost: Designs produced without consuming excessive resources

Technical information

Market information

Time information




Test and design equipment

Design and technical staff


The design activity is itself a process

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Percentage of final product cost committed by the design

Percentage of design costs incurred


Finish of the design activity

Start of the design activity

Relatively early in the design activity the decisions taken will commit the operation to costs which will be incurred later

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  • Designing processes

  • Process mapping

  • Process mapping symbols

  • Improving processes

  • Process performance

  • Throughput, cycle time & work in process

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  • Process mapping

  • Used to identify different types of activities.

  • Shows the flow of material, people or information.

  • Critical analysis of process maps can improve the process.

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Process mapping symbols

Beginning or end of process

Operation (an activity that directly adds value)


Inspection (a check of some sort)

Transport (a movement of some thing)

Input or Output from the process

Delay (a wait, e.g. for materials)

Direction of flow

Storage (deliberate storage, as opposed to a delay)

Decision (exercising discretion)

Process mapping symbols derived from Systems Analysis

Process mapping symbols derived from “Scientific Management”

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Raw Materials

Stored Sandwiches

Move to Outlets

Stored Sandwiches

Take Payment



Standard sandwich process

Customer Request

Take Payment

Raw Materials


Customer Request

Customized sandwich old process

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The operation of making and selling customized sandwiches

Assemble as required

Take payment


Sandwich materials and customers

Customers “assembled” to sandwiches

Bread and Base filling

The outline process of making and selling customized sandwiches

Assemble whole sandwich

Use standard “base”?




The detailed process of assembling customized sandwiches

Customer Request

Assemble from standard “base”

Stored “Bases”

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Assemble whole sandwich

Assembly of “sandwich bases”

Take Payment

Use standard “base”?




Bread and Base filling

Customer Request

Assemble from standard “base”

Stored “Bases”

Customized sandwich improved new process

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Right hand

Left hand


Pick up base plate

Insert into fixture

Hold base plate

Pick up two supports

Locate back plate

Pick up screws

Locate screws

Pick up air driver

Fasten screws


Replace air driver

Pick up centre assembly

Inspect centre assembly

Hold centre assembly

Locate and fix

Switch on timer

Wait to end test



Transfer grasp

Transfer grasp


Put aside

‘Two handed’ process chart

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  • Process performance

  • Process performance can be judge against the five key performance objective:

    • Quality

    • Speed

    • Dependability

    • Flexibility

    • Cost

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  • Throughput, work content, cycle time, and work in process

    • Throughput – the time for a unit to move through the process

    • Work content – the total amount of work required to produce a unit of output (measured in time)

    • Cycle time – The average time between units of output emerging form the process

    • Work in process (WIP) –unfinished items in a production process waiting for further processing e. g. when customers join a queue in a process they become WIP

  • throughput = work in process x cycle time

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One-off, complex, large scale, high work content “products”

Speciallymade, every one customized

Defined start and finish: time, quality and cost objectives

Many different skills have to be coordinated

Fixed position layout

Project Processes

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Project Process

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Very small quantities: “one-offs”, or only a few required

Speciallymade. High variety, low repetition.

Skill requirements are usually very broad

Skilled jobber, or team of jobbers complete whole product

Fixed position or process layout (routing decided by jobbers)

Jobbing Processes

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Jobbing Process

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Higher volumes and lower variety than for jobbing

Standard products, repeating demand. But can make specials

Specialized, narrower skills

Set-ups (changeovers) at each stage of production

Process or cellular layout

Batch Processes

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Batch Process

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Higher volumes than Batch

Standard, repeat products

Low and/or narrow skills

No set-ups, or almost instantaneous ones

Cell or product layout

Mass (Line)Processes

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Mass Process

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Extremely high volumes and low variety: often single product

Standard, repeat products

Highly capital-intensive and automated

Few changeovers required

Difficult and expensive to start and stop the process

Product layout: usually flow along conveyors or pipes

Continuous Process

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Continuous Process

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Manufacturing process types

Service process types




Professional service


Service shop





Mass service











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