Lab. No.9
Download
1 / 92

Lab. No.9 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 100 Views
  • Uploaded on

Lab. No.9. Classification Of Insects. 1. Classification is sorting out all organisms into groups according to the similarities between them. Categories used in classification. * Kingdom * Phylum (and subphylum) * Class (and subclass) * Order (and suborder) * Superfamily

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Lab. No.9' - marika


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

Lab. No.9

Classification Of Insects

1


Classification is sorting out all organisms into groups according to the similarities between them.


Categories used in classification according to the similarities between them.

* Kingdom

* Phylum (and subphylum)

* Class (and subclass)

* Order (and suborder)

* Superfamily

* Family (and subfamily)

* Genus (and subgenus)

* Species (and subspecies)


The phylum Arthropoda according to the similarities between them.

Some characteristics of the Arthropoda are:

* They have a so called exoskeleton. They do not have bones, but the hard outer covering supports the muscles.

* The appendages are jointed.

*The body is formed of a number of segments.


Characteristics of the class Hexapoda according to the similarities between them.

(Insects)

Some characteristics of insects are:

Body:

The body is divided into three distinct regions: head, thorax and abdomen.


Head: according to the similarities between them.

* One pair of antennae.

* Eyes:

Most insects possess one pair of compound eyes and sometimes some simple eyes called ocelli.

* Mouthparts:

There is a big variety in types of mouthparts; biting, sucking, stinging, etc.


Thorax: according to the similarities between them.

* Three pairs of legs.

The thorax has three segments. These are called pro-thorax, meso-thorax and meta-thorax. Each segment has one pair of legs. The different parts of the leg are called coxa, trochanter, femur, tibia, and tarsus.Note: some insects are legless, or have fewer than 6 legs. Some larvae have leg-like appendages on the abdomen.


* One or two pairs of wings: according to the similarities between them.

The wings are borne by the second and/or third of the thoracic segments.Note: Some insects are wingless.


Abdomen: according to the similarities between them.

* The gonopore (genital opening) is at the posterior end of the abdomen.

* Sometimes there are some appendages at the end of the abdomen.


Classification of Hexapoda (Insects) according to the similarities between them.

The class hexapoda is divided in two subclasses:

1. Apterygota (= primitive wingless insects)

2. Pterygota (= winged and secondarily wingless insects).


Apterygota according to the similarities between them.

* These are all relatively small insects.

*They are all land animals, though a few live near the ocean and are occasionally found in tide pools.

* Ametabola


The subclass Apterygota has 4 orders namely: according to the similarities between them.


Order Thysanura according to the similarities between them.

(Thysan-ura, from Greek thusanos = fringe, oura = tail)

e.g; Silverfish - Lepisma saccharina

Firebrat - Thermobia domestica

* Domestic species such as silverfish and firebrats may cause extensive damage to household goods.

* They often feed on wallpaper paste, bookbindings, and the starch sizing of some textiles.


General Characteristics: according to the similarities between them.

* Small insects with compound eyes and very long, thread-like antennae.

* Mouthparts for biting and chewing.

* Tarsi 2-4 segmented.

* Body often covered with scales.

* Abdomen with 10 complete segments.

* Have long cerci and a median tail filament.

* The Order contains about 600 known species.


Common Silverfish according to the similarities between them.

Lepisma saccharina


Common name: Firebrat according to the similarities between them.

Thermobia domestica


Order Diplura according to the similarities between them.

(Dipl-ura, from Greek diplos = double, oura = tail).

e.g; Campodea sp, Japyx sp.


* Live in concealed, damp situations in the soil, under stones, in dead wood and among leaf litter, where they feed on decaying vegetable matter.


General Characteristics: stones, in dead wood and among leaf litter, where they feed on decaying vegetable matter.

* Small wingless insects, lacking eyes.

* Antennae long, with many segments (filiform)

* Mouthparts for biting.

* Abdomen with 11 segments.

* Tarsi are 1-segmented.

The Order contains about 400 known species.*


a. stones, in dead wood and among leaf litter, where they feed on decaying vegetable matter. Campodea sp.

b. Japyx sp.


Campodea stones, in dead wood and among leaf litter, where they feed on decaying vegetable matter. sp


Order Protura stones, in dead wood and among leaf litter, where they feed on decaying vegetable matter.

(Prot-ura, from Greek protos = first, oura = tail)

* Proturans live chiefly in soil, moss and leaf litter of moist temperate forests, but have also been found beneath rocks or under the bark of trees, as well as in animal burrows.


General Characteristics: stones, in dead wood and among leaf litter, where they feed on decaying vegetable matter.

* Proturans are white and lack eyes. They have cone-shaped heads.

* Antennae: Not present.

* Mouthparts: piercing and sucking.

* Legs: Three pairs, fist pair larger and held up to sense surroundings andtarsi with 1-segmented

* Abdomen with 12 segments.

* Cerci is absence.


Acerentomon stones, in dead wood and among leaf litter, where they feed on decaying vegetable matter. sp.


Order Collembola stones, in dead wood and among leaf litter, where they feed on decaying vegetable matter.

(“colla”, glue, “embolon”, bar)=springtails

* They live just about everywhere, in the canopy of tropical rain forests, on the beach, in tidal rock pools, on the surface of fresh water ponds and streams, in the deserts of Australia and in the frozen wastes on Antarctica.


*The species which live in caves or deep in the leaf litter and or the soil tend to be white, have a reduced or no eyes. The species that live in more open environments are more coloured and are often very beautiful.


General Characteristics: and or the soil tend to be white, have a reduced or no eyes. The species that live in more open environments are more coloured and are often very beautiful

* Ventral tube ("collophore") on segment 1 of abdomen (adhesive in some groups, but primarily involved with excretion and water transport).

* Springing mechanism formed from retinaculum on segment 3, furcula on segment 4.

* 4-segmented antennae (segments sometimes subsegmented, giving the appearance of more than 4 segments).


* 6 abdominal segments. and or the soil tend to be white, have a reduced or no eyes. The species that live in more open environments are more coloured and are often very beautiful

* Adults continue moulting throughout life (up to 50 moults)

* Eyes are either simple ocelli or absent.

* Mouthparts: Chewing, feed primarily on _fungus.


Springtails and or the soil tend to be white, have a reduced or no eyes. The species that live in more open environments are more coloured and are often very beautiful


The subclass Pterygota has 2 divisions namely: and or the soil tend to be white, have a reduced or no eyes. The species that live in more open environments are more coloured and are often very beautiful


Exopterygota and or the soil tend to be white, have a reduced or no eyes. The species that live in more open environments are more coloured and are often very beautiful


Order Ephemeroptera and or the soil tend to be white, have a reduced or no eyes. The species that live in more open environments are more coloured and are often very beautiful

(“ephemera”, short-lived, “ptera” wings)

* They survive only a few hours or at most a few days.

* They eat nothing. They only fly and mate within dancing swarms, usually in late afternoon or evening.


General Characteristics: and or the soil tend to be white, have a reduced or no eyes. The species that live in more open environments are more coloured and are often very beautiful

* Naiads - chewing mouthparts (they are predacious or herbivores).

* Wings: two pair.

* Metamorphosis: hemimetabolus with a unique subadult (=subimago); a winged adult emerges from water, climbs on vegetation and then molts to adult stage.


Adults: and or the soil tend to be white, have a reduced or no eyes. The species that live in more open environments are more coloured and are often very beautiful

* 2 or 3 terminal tails on abdomen.

Long legs; body thin and elongate. *

Naiads:

Abdominal gills and 3 feathery gills at end of abdomen.

* Naiads in fresh water and adults very close to water.


* They have long cerci. and or the soil tend to be white, have a reduced or no eyes. The species that live in more open environments are more coloured and are often very beautiful

* They have large eyes and very short antenna.

* 10 abdominal segments


Mayflies and or the soil tend to be white, have a reduced or no eyes. The species that live in more open environments are more coloured and are often very beautiful


Order Odonata and or the soil tend to be white, have a reduced or no eyes. The species that live in more open environments are more coloured and are often very beautiful

Greek “odon” = tooth (referring to teeth on their mandibles).


General Characteristics: and or the soil tend to be white, have a reduced or no eyes. The species that live in more open environments are more coloured and are often very beautiful

* Long, transparent, showy wings with visible pattern.

* Long, slender bodies.

* Antennae: setaceous.

* Eyes very large in proportion to head size.

* Mouthparts: chewing.

* Well developed compound eyes.


* Cerci modified for claspers. and or the soil tend to be white, have a reduced or no eyes. The species that live in more open environments are more coloured and are often very beautiful

* Tarsi with 3-segmented.

* Complex wing venation, with many cross veins.

* Copulatory organ of the male located on the ventral anterior side of the 2nd abdominal segment.

* Metamorphosis: Hemimetabolous.


e.g; Dragonflies and Damesflies and or the soil tend to be white, have a reduced or no eyes. The species that live in more open environments are more coloured and are often very beautiful


Dragonflies and or the soil tend to be white, have a reduced or no eyes. The species that live in more open environments are more coloured and are often very beautiful


Damesfly and or the soil tend to be white, have a reduced or no eyes. The species that live in more open environments are more coloured and are often very beautiful


Order Plecoptera and or the soil tend to be white, have a reduced or no eyes. The species that live in more open environments are more coloured and are often very beautiful

Plecoptera: from the Greek "plektos" (twisted) + "pteron" (wing); refers to the folded posterior region of the resting hind wing

* Plecoptera are an order of insects, commonly known as stoneflies.

* Plecopteran nymphs are restricted to cool, clean streams with high dissolved oxygen content.

* This is a small group of aquatic insects, often referred to as Stoneflies.


General Characteristics: and or the soil tend to be white, have a reduced or no eyes. The species that live in more open environments are more coloured and are often very beautiful

* Small to medium size.

* Body soft and somewhat flattened, usually relatively pale in color.

* Transparent wings, of which the hind wings are broader than the forewings.wings held flat when at rest.

* Two long tail filaments.

* Mouthparts are mandibulate, although non-functional generally in adults


* Tarsi all with 3 segments. and or the soil tend to be white, have a reduced or no eyes. The species that live in more open environments are more coloured and are often very beautiful

* Abdomen with 10 segments.

* They have long and segmented cerci.

* Metamorphosis: Incomplete.

Larvae: 2 caudal filaments.

Gills on thoracic

All legs with 2 claws.


Stonefly nymph and or the soil tend to be white, have a reduced or no eyes. The species that live in more open environments are more coloured and are often very beautiful


Order Orthoptera and or the soil tend to be white, have a reduced or no eyes. The species that live in more open environments are more coloured and are often very beautiful

Orthoptera: from the Greek "orthos" (straight) + "pteron" (wing).


General Characteristics: and or the soil tend to be white, have a reduced or no eyes. The species that live in more open environments are more coloured and are often very beautiful

* Hind legs long, modified for jumping.

* Forewings (tegmina) hardened, leathery, spread in flight, covering membranous.

* Cerci (appendages at tip of abdomen) unsegmented.

* Strong chewing mouthparts.

* Metamorphosis: Hemimetabolous.


Suborder Caelifera – Grasshoppers and or the soil tend to be white, have a reduced or no eyes. The species that live in more open environments are more coloured and are often very beautiful

* Feed almost exclusively on plants, though some will scavenge dead plant and animal material at times.

General Characteristics:

* Back legs large, modified for jumping.

Antennae usually shorter than body.

Auditory organ (tympanum) if present, is on the abdomen (typically on front tibiae inEnsifera).


Trimerotropis pallidipennis and or the soil tend to be white, have a reduced or no eyes. The species that live in more open environments are more coloured and are often very beautiful


Cratypedes lateritius and or the soil tend to be white, have a reduced or no eyes. The species that live in more open environments are more coloured and are often very beautiful


Tomonotus ferruginosus and or the soil tend to be white, have a reduced or no eyes. The species that live in more open environments are more coloured and are often very beautiful


Paratettix mexicanus and or the soil tend to be white, have a reduced or no eyes. The species that live in more open environments are more coloured and are often very beautiful


Melanoplus sanguinipes and or the soil tend to be white, have a reduced or no eyes. The species that live in more open environments are more coloured and are often very beautiful


Melanoplus lakinus and or the soil tend to be white, have a reduced or no eyes. The species that live in more open environments are more coloured and are often very beautiful


Suborder Ensifera - Long-horned Orthoptera and or the soil tend to be white, have a reduced or no eyes. The species that live in more open environments are more coloured and are often very beautiful

* Many are herbivores; some are carnivores.

General Characteristics:

* Hind femora usually only somewhat enlarged (compare large femora of Caelifera).* Antennae thread-like, with more than 30 segments (fewer than 30 in Caelifera).

* Ovipositor long, sword-like (sometimes needle-like), internally has 6 valves--4 in Caelifera.


* Tarsi with 3-4 segments. and or the soil tend to be white, have a reduced or no eyes. The species that live in more open environments are more coloured and are often very beautiful

* Tympanum (hearing organ) on the front tibia in those groups that sing.


Longhorned grasshopper and or the soil tend to be white, have a reduced or no eyes. The species that live in more open environments are more coloured and are often very beautiful - Orchelimum


Conocephalus strictus and or the soil tend to be white, have a reduced or no eyes. The species that live in more open environments are more coloured and are often very beautiful


Scudderia septentrionalis and or the soil tend to be white, have a reduced or no eyes. The species that live in more open environments are more coloured and are often very beautiful


Microcentrum retinerve and or the soil tend to be white, have a reduced or no eyes. The species that live in more open environments are more coloured and are often very beautiful


Neocurtilla hexadactyla and or the soil tend to be white, have a reduced or no eyes. The species that live in more open environments are more coloured and are often very beautiful


To be continue........... and or the soil tend to be white, have a reduced or no eyes. The species that live in more open environments are more coloured and are often very beautiful


ad