Bonding
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Bonding. Two or more atoms join together to form a stable group. There are several types of forces (BONDS) which hold the atoms together in these groups. IONIC (ionic compounds) COVALENT (molecular compounds) METALLIC (pure elements or homogeneous mixtures)

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Bonding

Bonding

Two or more atoms join together to form a stable group.

There are several types of forces (BONDS) which hold the atoms together in these groups.

IONIC (ionic compounds)

COVALENT (molecular compounds)

METALLIC (pure elements or homogeneous mixtures)

WEAK INTERMOLECULAR (ie.: the forces that hold water molecules together)


Differences in properties

Ionic Compounds

High melting point

Conduct electricity when molten or dissolved in water

Molecular Compounds

Low melting point

Does NOT conduct electricity when molten or dissolved in water.

Differences in properties


What is an ion

An ion is an atom which has “lost” or “gained” one or more electrons, thus obtaining a “net” positive or negative charge.

What is an Ion?


Cations vs anions

Cations - ions formed when e- are lost from an atom/group of atoms

Positive Ions (+)

Usually formed from metal elements

Anions - ions formed when e- are gained by an atom/group of atoms

Negative Ions (-)

Usually formed from nonmetal elements

Cations vs. Anions

Covalent and ionic bonding


Ions in water

Ions in Water

A Matter of Ions


Ions vs molecules lose or gain e sharing of e between atoms

Ions vs. Moleculeslose or gain e- sharing of e- (between atoms)


Valence electrons

Valence Electrons

  • Valence Electrons are the electrons in the Outermost Energy Shell.

  • The number of valence electrons matches the group number for the representative elements (s & p).

  • Transition (d) and Inner-transition (f) elements typically have “2” valence electrons.

    • However, some of their “outer ‘d’” electrons may participate in bonding.


Electron dot structures for representative elements

Electron Dot Structures for Representative Elements

Electron dot structures for selected representatives and noble-gas elements


Octet rule

Octet Rule

  • Atoms will attempt to gain or lose electrons to attain the same electron configuration as a Noble Gas.

    • Noble Gases have 8 valence electrons (except Helium)

    • What actually happens is dependent on the elements involved in the reaction!

      • Metal & Nonmetal = Ionic Bond (eg.: NaCl)

      • Nonmetal & Nonmetal = Covalent Bond (eg.: H2O)


Predicting ionic charges

Predicting Ionic Charges

Periodic table in which the metallic elements that exhibit a fixed ionic charge are highlighted.


Monatomic ions vs polyatomic ions

Monatomic Ions vs. Polyatomic Ions

  • Monatomic IONS are comprised of only ONE element.

    • Ex. Na+, Cl-, Al3+, O2-, etc.

  • Polyatomic IONS are comprised of two or more elements/atoms.

    • NH4+, NO3-, SO42-, CO32-, etc.


Polyatomic ions

Polyatomic Ions!


Ionic compounds

Ionic Compounds

Ionic Compounds are typically Crystalline in form

  • (a) fluorite and

  • (b) ruby.


Ionic compounds occur when cations and anions bond together

Ionic compoundsoccur when cations and anions bond together.

These elements join together because of electrostatic attractions between charged IONS. This “joining” occurs in 3D, thus, crystalline in form.

Remember, cations are usually metallic elements (or “ammonium”) and anions are usually nonmetallic elements (or MnO4-, CrO4-2, Cr2O7-2, MoO4-2).


Which part of the ionic compound is responsible for the typical physical properties

Which part of the ionic compound is responsible for the typical physical properties?

Copper (II) oxide is black, whereas copper (I) oxide is reddish brown. Iron (II) chloride is green, whereas iron (III) chloride is bright yellow.


Sodium chloride

Sodium chloride

(a,b) Two-dimensional cross section and a three-dimensional view of sodium chloride. (c) sodium chloride crystals


Why nacl

Why NaCl?

  • Cross section of the structure of the ionic solid NaCl.


Reactions of ionic compounds an important example

Reactions of Ionic Compounds (an important example)

  • Tooth Enamel Demineralization

    Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 + 8H+<==> 10Ca2+ + 6PO3- + 2H2O


Predicting formulas using the periodic table and valence electrons

Predicting formulas using the Periodic Table and valence electrons

Metal atoms LOSE valence electrons to form cations

Nonmetal atoms GAIN valence electrons to form anions

Na (1 v.e-) --> Na+ (looks like neon)

Cl (7 v.e-) --> Cl- (looks like argon)


Naming ionic compounds

Naming Ionic Compounds

Nomenclature of ionic compounds.


Formation of ionic compounds

Formation of ionic compounds

Loss of an electron from a sodium atom leaves it with one more proton than electrons, so it has a net electrical charge of +1.


Tests for ionic compounds

Tests for Ionic Compounds

  • Flame Tests

    • Ex: Ba, Na, K

  • Precipitation Tests

    • Ex. Pb(NO3)2 + KI


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