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Microcomputer Architecture






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Microcomputer Architecture. Please fill out the 3x5 card. Name Prior math/stats/comp sc coursework Any computer expertise Planned post-grad plans Hopes/fears about this class! Something I should know about you or might find interesting (helps me remember)
Microcomputer Architecture

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Slide 1

Microcomputer Architecture

Slide 2

Please fill out the 3x5 card

  • Name

  • Prior math/stats/comp sc coursework

  • Any computer expertise

  • Planned post-grad plans

  • Hopes/fears about this class!

  • Something I should know about you or might find interesting (helps me remember)

  • A Password (make it one you will remember, but not one you also use for anything important. This is for web page access)

Slide 3

Computers - Basic Architecture

  • Computers have:

    • Input

    • Output

    • Storage (Memory)

    • Connectivity (can be seen as an IO channel)

Slide 4

Using the Computer

Slide 5

Some simple binary arithmetic

  • Why Binary?

  • Why Decimal?

    • People count by 10s

      • Because we have ten fingers

  • Computers count by ones

    • Because magnetic storage media can electricity can be easily set to “on” and “off”

    • Or 0 and 1

Slide 6

Bits and Bytes

  • All of the data, programs, and circuitry are digital or binary in nature, meaning that they are comprised of the elements 0 and 1.

  • This is somewhat different than standard (not digital or HD) radio, television, and vinyl or LP records, which operate on analog methods.

    • Analog electronics means that devices use an electrical signal that has amplitude or magnitude instead of a stream of 0's and 1's.

  • Why binary? Because the storage of information on magnetic media is accomplished by arranging bits of metallic oxide in one of two alignments, corresponding to 0 or 1.

    • This allows for massive numbers of 0s and 1s to be stored in a very small space. This smallest unit of information (a 0 or a 1) is called a bit.

  • Collections of bits can be organized into larger chunks.

    • 4 bits = 1 nibble

    • 8 bits = 2 nibbles = 1 byte

Slide 7

Counting in Base 2 (Binary)

Slide 8

Other Bases are useful as well

Slide 9

ASCII Characters

  • A single byte, consisting of 8 bits can represent 256 different numbers

    • The largest number represented by n bits is 2n-1

    • Hence 28-1 = 255

    • Including 0, that makes 256 different numbers

  • These 256 numbers have been standardized to the ASCII character set. All PCs use the same number to represent the same character.

  • This will expand with Unicode

Slide 10

What Do Computers Do?

  • Computers add

    • Computers Subtract

      • Which is negative addition

    • Computers multiply

      • Which is adding multiple times

    • Computers Divide

      • Which is negative adding a bunch of times

    • Computers do more complicated things –

      • Square roots, power functions, exponentiation, logarithms

        • All by numeric approximation – which is addition

  • They move around the data that they add.

  • That’s all…

Slide 11

The CPU

  • Functions as the arithmetic unit of the computer

  • It operates according to it’s clock cycle

  • A 1.8 GHz computer has a clock that cycles 1.8 billion times per second

Slide 12

Binary addition

  • Adding Binary Numbers is Simple

    • 3 Rules

      • 0 + 0 = 0

      • 1 + 0 = 1

      • 1 + 1 = 10 ( = 0 and carry the 1 to the next higher column)

Slide 13

Graphic Representation of Addition

Slide 14

Does this look familiar

  • Binary Addition is the electrical/electronic application of the “exclusive or” from logic

  • Many numbers that are encountered frequently in computers arise from binary arithmetic

Slide 15

Get on the Bus

  • Computers read data on the “buses” that the CPU has

  • Two Buses of note

    • Data Bus

      • The data read into (or written from) the CPU or memory

    • Address Bus

      • The spot in memory to read from or write to

Slide 16

The Power of 2

Slide 17

More Powers of 2

Slide 18

And Even More Powers of 2

Slide 19

Digital Systems

  • So, in the end, we can see that computers simply move ad add 0’s and 1’s.

  • And out of this, we can build incredibly rich and complex experiences

  • Such as

  • Or…


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