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# Microcomputer Architecture - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Microcomputer Architecture. Please fill out the 3x5 card. Name Prior math/stats/comp sc coursework Any computer expertise Planned post-grad plans Hopes/fears about this class! Something I should know about you or might find interesting (helps me remember)

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Microcomputer Architecture

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### Please fill out the 3x5 card

• Name

• Prior math/stats/comp sc coursework

• Any computer expertise

• Something I should know about you or might find interesting (helps me remember)

• A Password (make it one you will remember, but not one you also use for anything important. This is for web page access)

### Computers - Basic Architecture

• Computers have:

• Input

• Output

• Storage (Memory)

• Connectivity (can be seen as an IO channel)

### Some simple binary arithmetic

• Why Binary?

• Why Decimal?

• People count by 10s

• Because we have ten fingers

• Computers count by ones

• Because magnetic storage media can electricity can be easily set to “on” and “off”

• Or 0 and 1

### Bits and Bytes

• All of the data, programs, and circuitry are digital or binary in nature, meaning that they are comprised of the elements 0 and 1.

• This is somewhat different than standard (not digital or HD) radio, television, and vinyl or LP records, which operate on analog methods.

• Analog electronics means that devices use an electrical signal that has amplitude or magnitude instead of a stream of 0's and 1's.

• Why binary? Because the storage of information on magnetic media is accomplished by arranging bits of metallic oxide in one of two alignments, corresponding to 0 or 1.

• This allows for massive numbers of 0s and 1s to be stored in a very small space. This smallest unit of information (a 0 or a 1) is called a bit.

• Collections of bits can be organized into larger chunks.

• 4 bits = 1 nibble

• 8 bits = 2 nibbles = 1 byte

### ASCII Characters

• A single byte, consisting of 8 bits can represent 256 different numbers

• The largest number represented by n bits is 2n-1

• Hence 28-1 = 255

• Including 0, that makes 256 different numbers

• These 256 numbers have been standardized to the ASCII character set. All PCs use the same number to represent the same character.

• This will expand with Unicode

### What Do Computers Do?

• Computers Subtract

• Computers multiply

• Which is adding multiple times

• Computers Divide

• Which is negative adding a bunch of times

• Computers do more complicated things –

• Square roots, power functions, exponentiation, logarithms

• All by numeric approximation – which is addition

• They move around the data that they add.

• That’s all…

### The CPU

• Functions as the arithmetic unit of the computer

• It operates according to it’s clock cycle

• A 1.8 GHz computer has a clock that cycles 1.8 billion times per second

• Adding Binary Numbers is Simple

• 3 Rules

• 0 + 0 = 0

• 1 + 0 = 1

• 1 + 1 = 10 ( = 0 and carry the 1 to the next higher column)

### Does this look familiar

• Binary Addition is the electrical/electronic application of the “exclusive or” from logic

• Many numbers that are encountered frequently in computers arise from binary arithmetic

### Get on the Bus

• Computers read data on the “buses” that the CPU has

• Two Buses of note

• Data Bus

• The data read into (or written from) the CPU or memory

• The spot in memory to read from or write to

### Digital Systems

• So, in the end, we can see that computers simply move ad add 0’s and 1’s.

• And out of this, we can build incredibly rich and complex experiences

• Such as

• Or…