Microcomputer Architecture. Please fill out the 3x5 card. Name Prior math/stats/comp sc coursework Any computer expertise Planned post-grad plans Hopes/fears about this class! Something I should know about you or might find interesting (helps me remember)

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Computers - Basic Architecture

Computers have:

Input

Output

Storage (Memory)

Connectivity (can be seen as an IO channel)

Using the Computer

Some simple binary arithmetic

Why Binary?

Why Decimal?

People count by 10s

Because we have ten fingers

Computers count by ones

Because magnetic storage media can electricity can be easily set to “on” and “off”

Or 0 and 1

Bits and Bytes

All of the data, programs, and circuitry are digital or binary in nature, meaning that they are comprised of the elements 0 and 1.

This is somewhat different than standard (not digital or HD) radio, television, and vinyl or LP records, which operate on analog methods.

Analog electronics means that devices use an electrical signal that has amplitude or magnitude instead of a stream of 0's and 1's.

Why binary? Because the storage of information on magnetic media is accomplished by arranging bits of metallic oxide in one of two alignments, corresponding to 0 or 1.

This allows for massive numbers of 0s and 1s to be stored in a very small space. This smallest unit of information (a 0 or a 1) is called a bit.

Collections of bits can be organized into larger chunks.

4 bits = 1 nibble

8 bits = 2 nibbles = 1 byte

Counting in Base 2 (Binary)

Other Bases are useful as well

ASCII Characters

A single byte, consisting of 8 bits can represent 256 different numbers

The largest number represented by n bits is 2n-1

Hence 28-1 = 255

Including 0, that makes 256 different numbers

These 256 numbers have been standardized to the ASCII character set. All PCs use the same number to represent the same character.

This will expand with Unicode

What Do Computers Do?

Computers add

Computers Subtract

Which is negative addition

Computers multiply

Which is adding multiple times

Computers Divide

Which is negative adding a bunch of times

Computers do more complicated things –

Square roots, power functions, exponentiation, logarithms

All by numeric approximation – which is addition

They move around the data that they add.

That’s all…

The CPU

Functions as the arithmetic unit of the computer

It operates according to it’s clock cycle

A 1.8 GHz computer has a clock that cycles 1.8 billion times per second

Binary addition

Adding Binary Numbers is Simple

3 Rules

0 + 0 = 0

1 + 0 = 1

1 + 1 = 10 ( = 0 and carry the 1 to the next higher column)

Graphic Representation of Addition

Does this look familiar

Binary Addition is the electrical/electronic application of the “exclusive or” from logic

Many numbers that are encountered frequently in computers arise from binary arithmetic

Get on the Bus

Computers read data on the “buses” that the CPU has

Two Buses of note

Data Bus

The data read into (or written from) the CPU or memory

Address Bus

The spot in memory to read from or write to

The Power of 2

More Powers of 2

And Even More Powers of 2

Digital Systems

So, in the end, we can see that computers simply move ad add 0’s and 1’s.

And out of this, we can build incredibly rich and complex experiences