**1. **
Revised 5/28/2012
Slide # 1 Microcomputer Architecture

**2. **
Revised 5/28/2012
Slide # 2 Please fill out the 3x5 card Name
Prior math/stats/comp sc coursework
Any computer expertise
Planned post-grad plans
Hopes/fears about this class!
Something I should know about you or might find interesting (helps me remember)
A Password (make it one you will remember, but not one you also use for anything important. This is for web page access)

**3. **
Revised 5/28/2012
Slide # 3 Computers - Basic Architecture Computers have:
Input
Output
Storage (Memory)
Connectivity (can be seen as an IO channel)

**4. **
Revised 5/28/2012
Slide # 4 Using the Computer

**5. **
Revised 5/28/2012
Slide # 5 Some simple binary arithmetic Why Binary?
Why Decimal?
People count by 10s
Because we have ten fingers
Computers count by ones
Because magnetic storage media can electricity can be easily set to ?on? and ?off?
Or 0 and 1

**6. **
Revised 5/28/2012
Slide # 6 Bits and Bytes All of the data, programs, and circuitry are digital or binary in nature, meaning that they are comprised of the elements 0 and 1.
This is somewhat different than standard (not digital or HD) radio, television, and vinyl or LP records, which operate on analog methods.
Analog electronics means that devices use an electrical signal that has amplitude or magnitude instead of a stream of 0's and 1's.
Why binary? Because the storage of information on magnetic media is accomplished by arranging bits of metallic oxide in one of two alignments, corresponding to 0 or 1.
This allows for massive numbers of 0s and 1s to be stored in a very small space. This smallest unit of information (a 0 or a 1) is called a bit.
Collections of bits can be organized into larger chunks.
4 bits = 1 nibble
8 bits = 2 nibbles = 1 byte

**7. **
Revised 5/28/2012
Slide # 7 Counting in Base 2 (Binary)

**8. **
Revised 5/28/2012
Slide # 8 Other Bases are useful as well

**9. **
Revised 5/28/2012
Slide # 9 ASCII Characters A single byte, consisting of 8 bits can represent 256 different numbers
The largest number represented by n bits is 2n-1
Hence 28-1 = 255
Including 0, that makes 256 different numbers
These 256 numbers have been standardized to the ASCII character set. All PCs use the same number to represent the same character.
This will expand with Unicode

**10. **
Revised 5/28/2012
Slide # 10 What Do Computers Do? Computers add
Computers Subtract
Which is negative addition
Computers multiply
Which is adding multiple times
Computers Divide
Which is negative adding a bunch of times
Computers do more complicated things ?
Square roots, power functions, exponentiation, logarithms
All by numeric approximation ? which is addition
They move around the data that they add.
That?s all?

**11. **
Revised 5/28/2012
Slide # 11 The CPU Functions as the arithmetic unit of the computer
It operates according to it?s clock cycle
A 1.8 GHz computer has a clock that cycles 1.8 billion times per second

**12. **
Revised 5/28/2012
Slide # 12 Binary addition Adding Binary Numbers is Simple
3 Rules
0 + 0 = 0
1 + 0 = 1
1 + 1 = 10 ( = 0 and carry the 1 to the next higher column)

**13. **
Revised 5/28/2012
Slide # 13 Graphic Representation of Addition

**14. **
Revised 5/28/2012
Slide # 14 Does this look familiar Binary Addition is the electrical/electronic application of the ?exclusive or? from logic
Many numbers that are encountered frequently in computers arise from binary arithmetic

**15. **
Revised 5/28/2012
Slide # 15 Get on the Bus Computers read data on the ?buses? that the CPU has
Two Buses of note
Data Bus
The data read into (or written from) the CPU or memory
Address Bus
The spot in memory to read from or write to

**16. **
Revised 5/28/2012
Slide # 16 The Power of 2

**17. **
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Slide # 17 More Powers of 2

**18. **
Revised 5/28/2012
Slide # 18 And Even More Powers of 2

**19. **
Revised 5/28/2012
Slide # 19 Digital Systems So, in the end, we can see that computers simply move ad add 0?s and 1?s.
And out of this, we can build incredibly rich and complex experiences
Such as
Or?

**20. **
Revised 5/28/2012
Slide # 20