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Slide # 1 Microcomputer Architecture
Slide # 2 Please fill out the 3x5 card Name
Prior math/stats/comp sc coursework
Any computer expertise
Planned post-grad plans
Hopes/fears about this class!
Something I should know about you or might find interesting (helps me remember)
A Password (make it one you will remember, but not one you also use for anything important. This is for web page access)
Slide # 3 Computers - Basic Architecture Computers have:
Connectivity (can be seen as an IO channel)
Slide # 4 Using the Computer
Slide # 5 Some simple binary arithmetic Why Binary?
People count by 10s
Because we have ten fingers
Computers count by ones
Because magnetic storage media can electricity can be easily set to on and off
Or 0 and 1
Slide # 6 Bits and Bytes All of the data, programs, and circuitry are digital or binary in nature, meaning that they are comprised of the elements 0 and 1.
This is somewhat different than standard (not digital or HD) radio, television, and vinyl or LP records, which operate on analog methods.
Analog electronics means that devices use an electrical signal that has amplitude or magnitude instead of a stream of 0's and 1's.
Why binary? Because the storage of information on magnetic media is accomplished by arranging bits of metallic oxide in one of two alignments, corresponding to 0 or 1.
This allows for massive numbers of 0s and 1s to be stored in a very small space. This smallest unit of information (a 0 or a 1) is called a bit.
Collections of bits can be organized into larger chunks.
4 bits = 1 nibble
8 bits = 2 nibbles = 1 byte
Slide # 7 Counting in Base 2 (Binary)
Slide # 8 Other Bases are useful as well
Slide # 9 ASCII Characters A single byte, consisting of 8 bits can represent 256 different numbers
The largest number represented by n bits is 2n-1
Hence 28-1 = 255
Including 0, that makes 256 different numbers
These 256 numbers have been standardized to the ASCII character set. All PCs use the same number to represent the same character.
This will expand with Unicode
Slide # 10 What Do Computers Do? Computers add
Which is negative addition
Which is adding multiple times
Which is negative adding a bunch of times
Computers do more complicated things
Square roots, power functions, exponentiation, logarithms
All by numeric approximation which is addition
They move around the data that they add.
Slide # 11 The CPU Functions as the arithmetic unit of the computer
It operates according to its clock cycle
A 1.8 GHz computer has a clock that cycles 1.8 billion times per second
Slide # 12 Binary addition Adding Binary Numbers is Simple
0 + 0 = 0
1 + 0 = 1
1 + 1 = 10 ( = 0 and carry the 1 to the next higher column)
Slide # 13 Graphic Representation of Addition
Slide # 14 Does this look familiar Binary Addition is the electrical/electronic application of the exclusive or from logic
Many numbers that are encountered frequently in computers arise from binary arithmetic
Slide # 15 Get on the Bus Computers read data on the buses that the CPU has
Two Buses of note
The data read into (or written from) the CPU or memory
The spot in memory to read from or write to
Slide # 16 The Power of 2
Slide # 17 More Powers of 2
Slide # 18 And Even More Powers of 2
Slide # 19 Digital Systems So, in the end, we can see that computers simply move ad add 0s and 1s.
And out of this, we can build incredibly rich and complex experiences
Slide # 20